We are grateful to the Dutch Ministry of Social Affairs and Employment for access to the data and to Dan Hamermesh, the editor, and two anonymous referees for comments that substantially improved the quality of the paper. The views expressed are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of Cedefop. The usual caveat applies.
Multiple Glass Ceilings
Version of Record online: 16 SEP 2012
© 2012 Regents of the University of California
Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society
Volume 51, Issue 4, pages 892–915, October 2012
How to Cite
Russo, G. and Hassink, W. (2012), Multiple Glass Ceilings. Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society, 51: 892–915. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-232X.2012.00705.x
- Issue online: 16 SEP 2012
- Version of Record online: 16 SEP 2012
Both vertical (between job levels) and horizontal (within job levels) mobility can be sources of wage growth. We find that the glass ceiling operates at both margins. The unexplained part of the wage gap grows across job levels (glass ceiling at the vertical margin) and across the deciles of the intra-job-level wage distribution (glass ceiling at the horizontal margin). This implies that women face many glass ceilings, one for each job level above the second, and that the glass ceiling is a pervasive phenomenon. In the Netherlands it affects about 88 percent of jobs, and 81 percent of Dutch women in employment work in job levels where a glass ceiling is present.