Interest in the outcomes of flexible working arrangements (FWAs) dates from the mid-1970s, when researchers attempted to assess the impact of flexitime on worker performance. This paper reviews the literature on the link between FWAs and performance-related outcomes. Taken together, the evidence fails to demonstrate a business case for the use of FWAs. This paper attempts to explain the findings by analysing the theoretical and methodological perspectives adopted, as well as the measurements and designs used. In doing so, gaps in this vast and disparate literature are identified, and a research agenda is developed.