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This paper reviews and synthesizes the extant literature on venture capital syndication. By considering the questions of how, why and when syndication affects the performance of venture capitalist (VC) firms and their portfolio ventures, a schematic structure of the syndication literature is formed and areas for further research are identified. The results of the review show that, while the venture-level aspects are relatively well understood, the current literature lacks an understanding of how and why syndication affects the performance of VC firms. This suggests that more attention should be directed towards syndication as a component of the overall strategy of VC firms.