Much remains unknown in the increasingly important field of e-learning in organizations. Drawing on a large-scale survey of employees (N = 557) who had opportunities to participate in voluntary e-learning activities, the factors influencing participation in e-learning are explored in this empirical paper. It is hypothesized that key variables derived from the theories of planned behaviour and instructional design – general-person characteristics, motivation to learn, general and task-specific self-efficacy, situational barriers and enablers, and instructional design characteristics – will predict participation in e-learning. Using structural equation modelling, we find statistical support for the overall theoretical model proposed. We discuss the implications for practice.