This article is based on Sistemas de Pensiones en Centroamérica: Estudio Comparativo sobre la Capacidad de los Sistemas para Enfrentar la Crisis Actual y sus Posibles Efectos en los Principios Fundamentales de la Seguridad Social, San José, Programa Estado de la Región, 2011. The article summarizes that monograph, updates it to the end of 2010 and adds new information.
The performance of social security contributory and tax-financed pensions in Central America, and the effects of the global crisis
Article first published online: 3 JAN 2012
© 2012 The author(s). International Social Security Review © 2012 International Social Security Association
International Social Security Review
Volume 65, Issue 1, pages 1–27, January-March 2012
How to Cite
Mesa-Lago, C. (2012), The performance of social security contributory and tax-financed pensions in Central America, and the effects of the global crisis. International Social Security Review, 65: 1–27. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-246X.2011.01417.x
- Issue published online: 3 JAN 2012
- Article first published online: 3 JAN 2012
- gaps in coverage;
- social category;
- social security financing;
- social solidarity;
- Central America
Over the last 30 years, Latin America has pioneered structural pension reforms. This article focuses on a representative regional sample of seven Central American countries with diverse levels of development (Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama) studying contributory and tax-financed pensions as well as recent pension reforms. It comparatively assesses system performance regarding five social security principles: unity; universal coverage; adequacy of benefits; equal treatment, solidarity and gender equality; and financial sustainability. It also evaluates the impact of the world crisis on these pension systems, highlighting the differences between public and private pensions, and extracts lessons and suggests policies for the future.