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References

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    Wiechers, J.W. Comparing instrumental and sensory measurements of skin moisturization. Cosm. Toilet. 114, 2932 (1999).
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    Wiechers, J.W., Bouwstra, J., Burgess, A.N. et al. A multifaceted approach to elucidating skin moisturization and elasticity. IFSCC Congress Edinburg (UK), CD-ROM Proceedings Poster 133 (2002).
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    Ren, X.J., Smith, C.W., Evans, K.E. et al. Experimental testing and numerical modeling of human skin. IFSCC Magazine 8, 9598 (2005).
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    For reference, the Corneometer M-RP% readings were: 100 for glycerin, 99 for IPIS, 50 for petrolatum and 15 for ISIS. In-vitro, IPIS was found 3 times less efficient in stopping the evaporation of water through a cellulosic membrane (and ISIS less than half as efficient as petrolatum). It's worth noting here that when a similar test was done ref. [58] using In-Vitro Skin ™ the effect of membrane choice was clearly evidenced: the occlusivity order was the same, with petrolatum being much more occlusive, but the difference between IPIS and ISIS was considerably smaller.
  • 46
    Wiechers, J.W., Snieder, M., Dekker, N.A.G. and Hansen, W.G. Factors influencing skin moisturization signal using near-infrared spectroscopy. IFSCC Magazine 6, 1926 (2003).
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    Bouwstra, J.A., de Graaf, A., Gooris, G.S., Nijsse, J., Wiechers, J.W. and van Aelst, A.C. Water distribution and related morphology in human stratum corneum at different hydration levels. J. Invest. Dermatol. 120, 750758 (2003).
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    Caussin, J. Stratum Corneum Hydration, Mode of Action of Moisturizers on a Molecular Level. PhD Thesis. University Leiden, The Netherlands (2009).
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    Caussin, J., Gooris, G.S., Groenink, H.W.W., Wiechers, J.W. and Bouwstra, J.A. Interaction of lipophilic moisturizers on stratum corneum lipid domains in vitro and in vivo. Skin Pharmacol. Physiol. 20, 175186 (2007).
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    Bouwstra, J.A., Dubbelaar, F.E.R., Gooris, G.S. and Ponec, M. The lipid organisation in the skin barrier. Acta Derm. Venereol. Suppl. (Stockh) 208, 2330 (2000).
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    Groen, D. Stratum Corneum Model Membranes: Molecular Organization in Relation to Skin Barrier Function. PhD Thesis, University Leiden, The Netherlands (2011).
  • 52
    Pilgram, G.S.K., Vissers, D.C.J., van der Meulen, H., Pavel, S., Lavrijsen, S.P.M., Bouwstra, J.A. and Koerten, H.K. Aberrant lipid organization in SC of patients with atopic dermatitis and lamellar ichthyosis. J. Invest. Dermatol. 117, 710717 (2001).
  • 53
    Wiechers, J.W., Dederen, J.C. and Rawlings, A.V. Moisturization mechanisms: internal occlusion by orthorhombic lipid phase stabilisers – a novel mechanism of action in “Skin Moisturization”. see reference 20, Chapter 19, 309333 (2009).
  • 54
    Wiechers, J.W. Orthorhombic phase stabilization: a new mechanism for skin moisturization. Cosm. Toilet. 124, 4550 (2009).
  • 55
    Berardesca, E. and Maibach, H.I. Monitoring the water-holding capacity in visually non-irritated skin by plastic occlusion stress test (POST). Clin. Exp. Dermatol. 15, 107110 (1990).
  • 56
    Pinto, P.C., Pereira, L.M., Minhós, R. and Rodrigues, L.M. Discriminative capacity of compartmental modeling for the analysis of the in-vivo epidermal water content changes following topical application under occlusion. IFSCC Magazine 5, 8792 (2002).
  • 57
    Detailed information and literature references on the AquaFlux equipment can be found on http://www.biox.biz/Home/BioxKeyPubs.php, accessed Xx June 2012.
  • 58
    Pennick, G., Harrison, S., Jones, D. and Rawlings, A.V. Superior effect of isostearyl isostearate on improvement in stratum corneum water permeability barrier function as examined by the plastic occlusion stress test. Int. J. Cosm. Sci. 32, 304312 (2010).
  • 59
    Croda Crodamol ISIS product information bulletin DC200 (2009).
  • 60
    Pilgram, G.S., Engelsma-Van Pelt, A.M., Bouwstra, J.A. and Koerten, H.K. Electron diffraction provides new information on human stratum corneum lipid organization studied in relation to depth and temperature. J. Invest. Dermatol. 113, 403409 (1999).
  • 61
    See paper by Pennick elsewhere in this issue.