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Evidence-Based Psychosocial Treatments for Tic Disorders


Address correspondence to Clayton R. Cook, University of California, Riverside Graduate School of Education, 1207 Sproul Hall, Riverside, CA 92521. E-mail:


Researchers have questioned the clinical utility of psychosocial treatments to reduce tics in persons with chronic tic disorder or Tourette syndrome. The purpose of this research was to perform an evidence-based analysis on various types of psychosocial treatments to ameliorate tics. The rigorous evidence-based criteria established by the American Psychological Association's Division 12 Task Force on Promotion and Dissemination of Psychological Procedures were used to evaluate the evidence base of psychosocial treatments. Results from this investigation indicate that habit reversal training met criteria as a well-established treatment. In addition, exposure and response prevention was deemed to have met criteria necessary for classification as a probably efficacious treatment. The clinical implications of the results and directions for future research on other promising psychosocial treatments for individuals with tics are discussed.