• awareness;
  • emotion;
  • regulation;
  • relational;
  • transformation

Viewing emotion regulation as a process that occurs during the generation of emotion and with the aim of self-maintenance rather than self-control is emphasized. In a self-maintenance view, the cognitive system is seen as receiving information from the emotion system as well as influencing it, and self-maintenance is seen as occurring (largely below conscious awareness) by means of dynamic processes that involve both self- and other regulation. It is suggested that the field has yet to pay adequate attention to implicit and relational processes of regulation. An issue of major clinical significance is the importance of generating theory and research to help understand to what extent automatic emotion processes can be changed through deliberate conscious cognitive processes of self-control and to what extent they can only be changed through more implicit processes based on new emotional and/or relational experiences.