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A survey of 354 women (apparently the first representative national sample) found that 16% had received at least one obscene phone call (OPC) within the 6 months preceding the survey. The majority of calls appear to be targeted in some way. Women less than 65 years of age and those who were neither married nor widowed were more likely to receive an OPC. Five theoretical propositions were examined. Two were not supported: namely, that OPCs are pure random incidents or are attacks on socioeconomically powerful women. Two others were reasonably well-supported: that OPC receipt is explained by displaced aggression against a vulnerable population or by perceived availability (a modification of criminal opportunity theory). There was also strong empirical support for the final proposition that sees OPCs occurring in a pattern statistically similar to that of rape.