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The objective of this study is to test the effective decision-making theory's (EDMT) prediction that cultural individualism-collectivism (I-C), self-construal, and group composition influence turn-taking behavior and conflict behavior in small groups. Eighty-six European Americans and 62 Japanese participated in a decision-making activity in either a homogeneous or a heterogeneous group. The major findings of the study include: (a) Independent self-construal is a predictor of the number of turns and competitive conflict tactics in both homogeneous and heterogeneous groups; (b) interdependent self-construal is a predictor of cooperative conflict tactics, but the findings are not consistent for individuals across both group compositions; (c) cultural l-C is a predictor of the number of competitive conflict tactics in both homogeneous and heterogeneous groups; and (d) cultural I-C is a predictor of the number of turns and initiated conflicts only in heterogeneous groups. Implications for the EDMT and future directions are discussed.