The (In)validity of Self-Construal Scales Revisited



This paper offers a critical rejoinder in the discussion concerning the viability of self-construal scales. It is our contention that the existing data reported in our previous article (Levine et al., 2003) and elsewhere are more than sufficient to justify the conclusion that self-report scales purporting to measure interdependent and independent self-construals as 2 orthogonal constructs lack validity. The arguments to the contrary offered by Gudykunst and Lee (2003) and Kim and Raja (2003) are disputed. Additional data (N = 1,013) show that neither age, occupation, sample size, standardization, nor a 2nd-order structure can account for the problems we documented previously. Although we see potential utility in the self-construal construct, we believe that the 3 primary scales fail to meet reasonable and accepted social scientific standards. Difficult conceptual problems will need to be solved prior to the development of new and improved measures.