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A Primer on Multilevel Modeling


Andrew F. Hayes; e-mail:


Multilevel modeling (MLM) is growing in use throughout the social sciences. Although daunting from a mathematical perspective, MLM is relatively easy to employ once some basic concepts are understood. In this article, I present a primer on MLM, describing some of these principles and applying them to the analysis of a multilevel data set on doctor–patient communication during medical consultations.