This study was designed to compare the prevalence and clinical characteristics of ‘cold-induced headache’ between migraine and episodic tension-type headache patients. Seventy-six migraine and 38 episodic tension-type headache patients were included in the study. An experimental model of an ‘ice-cream headache’ was developed for the study. The pain occurrence period, its location and quality were recorded for each patient who felt pain in their head during the test procedure. Pain in the head occurred in 74% of migraine and 32% of ‘tension-type headache’ patients. Although the most frequent pain location was the temple in both groups of patients, this rate was greater than twofold in migraine patients when compared with episodic tension-type headache patients. While headache quality was throbbing in 71% of migraine patients, it was so in only 8% of the episodic tension-type headache patients. Considering all the results, it seems that ‘cold-stimulus headache’ is not only more frequent in migraine patients, but also its location and quality differ from ‘tension-type headache’.