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Keywords:

  • Cluster headache;
  • migraine;
  • red ear syndrome;
  • trigeminal autonomic cephalgia

Trigeminal autonomic cephalgias (TACs) include a spectrum of primary headache syndromes associated with cranial autonomic dysfunction. Other types of headache and facial pain syndromes can be associated with marked localized facial or ear autonomic changes. We report on a group of patients suffering from episodic migraine with cranial autonomic features, patients with different presentations of the ‘red ear syndrome’ (RES), cluster headache with prominent lower facial involvement and crossover cases. In our experience crossover between TACs and migraine, RES and cluster headache is not uncommon. We propose that all these conditions belong to the same group and a unifying causative mechanism is proposed.