The aim of this study was to estimate the 1-year prevalence of headache, migraine, tension-type headache (TTH) and chronic daily headache (CDH), and the degree of association of migraine with some sociodemographic characteristics of the population of Florianopolis, Brazil. This is a cross-sectional, door-to-door, population-based study. In 300 randomly selected households, 625 subjects, aged 15–64 years, responded to a structured questionnaire. The 1-year prevalence of headache was 80.8%, of migraine 22.1%, of TTH 22.9%, and of CDH 6.4%. Migraine and CDH were significantly more prevalent in females than in males. Migraine was significantly associated with the following variables: low household income, low electricity consumption, and divorced or widowed marital status. We have shown high prevalences of migraine and CDH in Florianopolis, close to the higher rates of previous studies. There was a preponderance of migraine in females, divorced or widowed, with a low socioeconomic level.