The aim of this study was to evaluate determinants of consultation for migraine in a representative sample of the French general adult population. We interviewed 10 032 subjects, of whom 1534 fulfilled the International Headache Society diagnostic criteria for migraine. These were categorized into migraine, probable migraine and chronic migraine. Information was collected on consultation experience; 436 subjects (28.4%) had never consulted for headache, 473 (30.8%) were in active consultation and 625 (40.7%) had previously consulted but lapsed. Subjects with chronic migraine showed the highest active consultation rates (51.8%). All subjects completed rating instruments for headache [Headache Impact Test (HIT)-6], psychiatric (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale scale) and psychological [Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (BIPQ), Brief COPE Inventory and Coping Strategy Questionnaire] variables. The strongest determinants of active consultation were BIPQ scores, HIT-6 scores and migraine type. Consultation was associated with maladaptive coping strategies (social support, emotional expression and acceptance). Determinants of remaining in consultation were catastrophizing coping scores and previous consultation experience.