The objectives of this study were to estimate the 1-year prevalence of chronic daily headache (CDH) and the degree of the association of CDH with some sociodemographic characteristics of the adult population of Brazil. This was a cross-sectional, population-based study. We conducted telephone interviews with 3848 people, aged 18–79 years, randomly selected from the 27 States of Brazil. The degree of the association was calculated through prevalence ratios, adjusted with Poisson regression by gender, age and some sociodemographic factors. The estimated 1-year gender- and age-adjusted prevalence of CDH was 6.9%. CDH was 2.4 times more prevalent in women, 1.72 times more in unemployed, 1.63 times more in subjects with high household income and two times greater in those who did not exercise. The overall prevalence of CDH in Brazil is high. CDH is significantly more prevalent in women, the unemployed, subjects with higher income, and in those who do not exercise.