In this study we aimed to assess the brain distribution of 5-HT1A receptors in migraine patients without aura. Ten female migraine patients and 24 female healthy volunteers underwent magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography using a radioligand antagonist of 5-HT1A receptors [4-(2′-methoxyphenyl)-1-[2′-(N-2-pirydynyl)-p-fluorobenzamido]-ethylpiperazine (18F-MPPF)]. A simplified reference tissue model was used to generate parametric images of 5-HT1A receptor binding potential (BP) values. Statistical Parametrical Mapping (SPM) analysis showed increased MPPF BP in posterior cortical areas and hippocampi bilaterally in patients compared with controls. Region of interest (ROI) analysis showed a non-significant trend in favour of a BP increase patients in cortical regions identified by the SPM analysis except in hippocampi, left parietal areas and raphe nuclei. During the interictal period of migraine patients without aura, the increase of MPPF BP in posterior cortical and limbic areas could reflect an increase in receptor density or a decrease of endogenous serotonin, which could explain their altered cortical excitability.