The aim of this study was to estimate the 1-year prevalence of migraine and the degree of the association of migraine with some sociodemographic characteristics of a representative sample of the adult population of Brazil. This was a cross-sectional, population-based study. Telephone interviews were conducted on 3848 people, aged 18–79 years, randomly selected from the 27 States of Brazil. The estimated 1-year gender- and age-adjusted prevalence of migraine was 15.2%. Migraine was 2.2 times more prevalent in women, 1.5 times more in subjects with > 11 years of education, 1.59 times more in subjects with income of < 5 Brazilian Minimum Wages per month, and 1.43 times more in those who do not do any physical exercise. The overall prevalence of migraine in Brazil is 15.2%. Migraine is significantly more prevalent in women, subjects with higher education, with lower income, and those who do not exercise regularly, independently of their body mass index.