Migraine is a common headache disorder that is increasingly being evaluated in population-based studies. The American Migraine Study II and the Women's Health Study (WHS) have successfully used ‘modified’ International Classification of Headache Disorders, 1st edition (ICHD-I) criteria to classify patients. Investigating agreement of self-reported migraine in large epidemiological studies with the criteria of the revised version [International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd edition (ICHD-II)] is sparse. We have investigated 1675 women with self-reported migraine participating in the WHS, who provided additional information on a detailed migraine questionnaire that allowed us to apply all ICHD-II criteria. In this sub-cohort, we confirmed self-reported migraine in > 87% of women when applying the ICHD-II criteria for migraine (71.5%) and probable migraine without aura (16.2%). In conclusion, there is excellent agreement between self-reported migraine and ICHD-II-based migraine classification in the WHS. In addition, questionnaire-based migraine assessment according to full ICHD-II criteria in large population-based studies is feasible.