Background Cutaneous leishmaniasis is an infectious re-emerging disease that has increased in incidence worldwide. Antimony, a highly toxic drug, remains the first choice therapy to treat it. Liposomal amphotericin B is active against Leishmania and is less toxic than antimony.
Objective To compare low-dose liposomal amphotericin B with N-methyl glucamine for the treatment of American cutaneous leishmaniasis.
Patients/Methods In a controlled open-label trial 35 patients with a localized form of American cutaneous leishmaniasis were included. They were allocated to a first group treated with 1.5 mg/kg/day of liposomal amphotericin B for 5 days, or to a second one treated with 20 mgSbV/kg/day of N-methyl glucamine for 20 days.
Results In the first group, 50% and 81% of patients experienced a clinical cure and clinical improvement respectively. There was a 100% clinical cure in the second group.
Conclusion Liposomal amphotericin B seems to be promising and safe for the treatment of American cutaneous leishmaniasis.