Background Upon skin contact to irritants, interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1α) is released in the stratum corneum as a primary step of skin inflammation. Variations in the IL-1A gene have been shown to alter the expression of IL-1α. This may influence the susceptibility to skin inflammation and the development of irritant contact dermatitis (ICD).
Objective To determine effects of an IL1A-889 C/T polymorphism in view of susceptibility to develop irritant contact dermatitis.
Methods In a case–control study, 478 Caucasian patients with occupational ICD of the hands were genotyped for an IL1A-889 C/T polymorphism. Results were compared to 393 apprentices from the same high risk occupations (controls).
Results Trends of a protective effect of the C→T transition at position IL1A-889 were seen (OR = 0.81; 95% CI: 0.65–1.00). The genotype distribution for IL1A-889 was 52.2% wild type (C/C), 39.2% heterozygous (C/T) and 8.6% homozygous for variant allele (T/T) in patients and 46.0%, 42.7% and 11.4% in controls. Subgroup analysis, which took into account atopy status and exposure, did not reveal a significant effect of this polymorphism for an aberrant risk to acquire for ICD.
Conclusion Our study indicates a possible protective effect of the IL1A-889 C/T polymorphism regarding the development of ICD.