Conflicts of Interest Authors declare no conflict of interest in this study.
Evaluation of tourists’ UV exposure in Paris
Article first published online: 9 JUL 2012
© 2012 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2012 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology
Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology
Volume 27, Issue 3, pages e294–e304, March 2013
How to Cite
Mahé, E., Corrêa, M.P., Godin-Beekmann, S., Haeffelin, M., Jégou, F., Saiag, P. and Beauchet, A. (2013), Evaluation of tourists’ UV exposure in Paris. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology, 27: e294–e304. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-3083.2012.04637.x
Funding sources This work was performed within the framework of the ‘RISC-UV project’, funded by the French Interdisciplinary Groupement d’Intérêt Scientifique (GIS) Climat Environnement Société, and the University of Versailles-Saint Quentin en Yvelines (BQR2009), France.
- Issue published online: 18 FEB 2013
- Article first published online: 9 JUL 2012
- Received: 12 February 2012; Accepted: 4 June 2012
Background Ultraviolet (UV) exposure is one of the most important risk factor for skin cancers. If UV hazard has been evaluated in tropical countries or in some population – children, outdoor activities – little information is available about UV hazard in high latitude towns like Paris, considered as the most ‘charismatic city’ in the world.
Objective To evaluate UV exposure in Paris in spring, in sun and shade, in real life conditions.
Methods We evaluated erythemal UV exposure, during four sunny days in May-June in eight Paris touristic sites during peak hours (2 days), and during two walks in touristic downtown of Paris. Measures were performed in sun and shade. UV radiation exposure was evaluated with UV index performed with a ‘Solarmeter ultraviolet index (UVI)’ and UV dose with ‘standard erythema dose’ (SED) and ‘minimal erythema dose’ (MED) calculations.
Results Despite ‘average’ UVI in sunny conditions, a 4-h sun exposure reaches 13–20 SED and 3–10 MED according to phototype. Clouds were inefficient to protect against UV. Shade of places reduces moderately UVI (50–60%) in forecourts. Exposure during 1-h walk reach at least one MED in real life conditions for skin phototypes I–IV.
Conclusions UV risk for tourist is quite high in spring in Paris. UVI remains high despite high cloud fraction. Shade reduces UVI, but UV protection factor is only 2–3 in large places such as Place Notre Dame and Place Charles de Gaulle. So sun protection campaigns should be proposed, and sun protective strategies could be integrated in urban planning.