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Evaluation of tourists’ UV exposure in Paris

Authors

  • E. Mahé,

    1. Research Unit EA 4339 ‘Skin, cancer, and environment’, Ambroise Paré University Hospital, University of Versailles-Saint Quentin en Yvelines, France
    2. Department of Dermatology, Ambroise Paré University Hospital, University of Versailles-Saint Quentin en Yvelines, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Boulogne-Billancourt, France
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  • M.P. Corrêa,

    1. Laboratoire Atmosphères, Milieux, Observations Spatiales, Service d’Aéronomie (LATMOS), CNRS, Institut Pierre Simon Laplace, Pierre et Marie Curie University, Paris, France
    2. Natural Resources Institute, Federal University of Itajubá, Itajubá, Brazil
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  • S. Godin-Beekmann,

    1. Laboratoire Atmosphères, Milieux, Observations Spatiales, Service d’Aéronomie (LATMOS), CNRS, Institut Pierre Simon Laplace, Pierre et Marie Curie University, Paris, France
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  • M. Haeffelin,

    1. Site Instrumental de Recherche par Télédétection Atmosphérique (SIRTA), Institut Pierre Simon Laplace, Ecole Polytechnique, University of Versailles-Saint Quentin en Yvelines, Palaiseau, France
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  • F. Jégou,

    1. Laboratoire Atmosphères, Milieux, Observations Spatiales, Service d’Aéronomie (LATMOS), CNRS, Institut Pierre Simon Laplace, Pierre et Marie Curie University, Paris, France
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  • P. Saiag,

    1. Research Unit EA 4339 ‘Skin, cancer, and environment’, Ambroise Paré University Hospital, University of Versailles-Saint Quentin en Yvelines, France
    2. Department of Dermatology, Ambroise Paré University Hospital, University of Versailles-Saint Quentin en Yvelines, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Boulogne-Billancourt, France
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  • A. Beauchet

    1. Research Unit EA 4339 ‘Skin, cancer, and environment’, Ambroise Paré University Hospital, University of Versailles-Saint Quentin en Yvelines, France
    2. Department of Public Health, Ambroise Paré University Hospital, University of Versailles-Saint Quentin en Yvelines, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Boulogne-Billancourt, France
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  • Conflicts of Interest
    Authors declare no conflict of interest in this study.

  • Funding sources
    This work was performed within the framework of the ‘RISC-UV project’, funded by the French Interdisciplinary Groupement d’Intérêt Scientifique (GIS) Climat Environnement Société, and the University of Versailles-Saint Quentin en Yvelines (BQR2009), France.

E. Mahé. E-mail:emmanuel.mahe@ch-argenteuil.fr

Abstract

Background  Ultraviolet (UV) exposure is one of the most important risk factor for skin cancers. If UV hazard has been evaluated in tropical countries or in some population – children, outdoor activities – little information is available about UV hazard in high latitude towns like Paris, considered as the most ‘charismatic city’ in the world.

Objective  To evaluate UV exposure in Paris in spring, in sun and shade, in real life conditions.

Methods  We evaluated erythemal UV exposure, during four sunny days in May-June in eight Paris touristic sites during peak hours (2 days), and during two walks in touristic downtown of Paris. Measures were performed in sun and shade. UV radiation exposure was evaluated with UV index performed with a ‘Solarmeter ultraviolet index (UVI)’ and UV dose with ‘standard erythema dose’ (SED) and ‘minimal erythema dose’ (MED) calculations.

Results  Despite ‘average’ UVI in sunny conditions, a 4-h sun exposure reaches 13–20 SED and 3–10 MED according to phototype. Clouds were inefficient to protect against UV. Shade of places reduces moderately UVI (50–60%) in forecourts. Exposure during 1-h walk reach at least one MED in real life conditions for skin phototypes I–IV.

Conclusions  UV risk for tourist is quite high in spring in Paris. UVI remains high despite high cloud fraction. Shade reduces UVI, but UV protection factor is only 2–3 in large places such as Place Notre Dame and Place Charles de Gaulle. So sun protection campaigns should be proposed, and sun protective strategies could be integrated in urban planning.

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