We are very grateful to the staff of Burgers' Zoo, especially to the chimpanzee keepers, Jacky Hommes, Inge Stevens-Beerma, Rene Klein-Nulant, Bianca Klein, and Maarten Houtriet, for their kind help during the observations. The study was financed by grants to the first author from the Overseas Research Program of Shiga Prefectural Junior College, and two Scientific Research Programs of the Ministry of Education, Science, and Culture, Japan, one promoted by Shozo Kojima (no. 07202109), the other by Tetsuro Matsuzawa (no. 05044006). We wish to thank Tetsuro Matsuzawa, Linda Van Elsacker, Vera Walraven, Christel Müller, and Don Foree for their helpful suggestions during the study and concerning the manuscript. We would also like to thank Astrid Kappers, Mirjam van Gool, and Ruud Derix for their kind advice and for introducing the first author to the chimpanzees in Burgers' Zoo, and Beatriz Kats and Loes Schmeink for their support in various forms throughout her study in The Netherlands.
Tool use by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) of the Arnhem Zoo community
Version of Record online: 26 AUG 2009
1996 Japanese Psychological Association
Japanese Psychological Research
Volume 38, Issue 3, pages 163–173, September 1996
How to Cite
TAKESHITA, H. and VAN HOOFF, J. A. R. A. M. (1996), Tool use by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) of the Arnhem Zoo community. Japanese Psychological Research, 38: 163–173. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-5884.1996.tb00021.x
- Issue online: 26 AUG 2009
- Version of Record online: 26 AUG 2009
- Received Nov. 8, 1995; accepted March 16, 1996
- tool use;
- developmental stages;
- multivariate analysis
Abstract: Chimpanzees have a large repertoire of tool-use behaviors. This study reports on the variety and the extent of tool use exhibited by the chimpanzees of the Arnhem Zoo community in The Netherlands, living in an enriched captive setting since 1971. The use of tools by 29 chimpanzees aged from 0 to 37 years was observed. We identified 13 types of tool use comparable to those found in the wild. Some of these types of tool use seem to be specific to this community, and can be explained by the ecological characteristics of this captive setting. Chimpanzees started to use tools from the age of 2 years. Young chimpanzees, from 5 to 9 years old, showed a greater repertoire of tool use than infants and adults. All types of tool use in the community have appeared by the age of 10, the age of puberty for chimpanzees. Multivariate analysis was applied for the 29 individuals by 13 types of tool use in a one-zero matrix. The results show two major categories of tool use, one in a practical or substantial context and the other in a nonpractical or play context. The subjects clustered into groups reflecting developmental stages, although there are great individual differences. In conclusion, this captive community provides a unique opportunity to clarify the details of tool use by chimpanzees.