• independence and interdependence;
  • relationships;
  • conflict;
  • self-efficacy;
  • communication

Abstract:  This study examined American students, Japanese students in Japan, and Japanese students in the USA. First, it examined whether respondents’ scale for independent and interdependent construals of the self (SII) scores would vary depending on the type of relationship (i.e., family members, friends, or peers at the student's university) posited by the instructions. It was found that the SII score of each of the three groups changed depending on the relationship. Second, the relationship between SII scores, perceived conflict, and self-efficacy were examined. It was found that self-efficacy was highest among the American students, followed by the Japanese students in the USA, and lowest among the Japanese students in Japan. Self-efficacy was correlated to independent and interdependent construals of the self. Third, the respondents’ preferences for expressiveness in communication were analyzed. The results of this study showed that there was a difference between the American students and both groups of Japanese students in their preference for three communication styles (independent, mixed, interdependent-type). Finally, the relationship between intercultural sensitivity, as measured by the intercultural sensitivity inventory, and self-efficacy were examined. Intercultural sensitivity was shown to have a positive correlation to general self-efficacy.