The author acknowledges F. E. Anderson for reviewing the manuscript.
A perspective on the study of cognition and sociality of cephalopod mollusks, a group of intelligent marine invertebrates1
Article first published online: 16 SEP 2009
© Japanese Psychological Association 2009.
Japanese Psychological Research
Special Issue: Divergence of comparative cognitive studies in Japan
Volume 51, Issue 3, pages 146–153, September 2009
How to Cite
IKEDA, Y. (2009), A perspective on the study of cognition and sociality of cephalopod mollusks, a group of intelligent marine invertebrates. Japanese Psychological Research, 51: 146–153. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-5884.2009.00401.x
- Issue published online: 16 SEP 2009
- Article first published online: 16 SEP 2009
- (Received January 28, 2009; accepted May 16, 2009)
- oval squid;
Cephalopod mollusks are found virtually everywhere throughout the world's oceans. They are highly mobile invertebrates that have evolved behavioral and morphological defenses against vertebrate predators. Unlike other mollusks, the coleoid cephalopods (octopus, cuttlefish, and squid) possess highly developed nervous systems with huge brains equivalent in size to some vertebrate brains. Cephalopod intelligence is also exhibited by their impressive memory and learning abilities. Why have cephalopods developed such huge brains and cognitive ability? One of the keys to answering this question lies in understanding the social interactions of cephalopods, which have thus far not been well documented. In this paper, I will outline our recent behavioral experiments using mirrors with some cephalopods and discuss these experiments in light of the diversity of social and cognitive behaviors of cephalopods.