Time orientation and identity formation: Long-term longitudinal dynamics in emerging adulthood

Authors


  • This study was funded by Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B) of Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (No. 20330137, 23330202) to all authors and by Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C) of Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (No.08610124, 10610113, 13610133) to the first author.

Toshiaki Shirai, Faculty of Education, Osaka Kyoiku University, Asahigaoka, Kashiwara 582-8582, Japan. (E-mail: shirai@cc.osaka-kyoiku.ac.jp)

Abstract

This study explores how time orientation causes identity formation in emerging adulthood. We assume identity formation can be led by a balanced time orientation, which is defined as a time orientation with which individuals not only pursue a future goal but also combine it with living fully in the present. We used a long-term longitudinal design. The participants (N = 181), who were college students at the beginning of this investigation, were followed from age 20–31 years. They were asked to answer a questionnaire that was composed of the Time Orientation Questionnaire (TOQ) and the Identity Status Scale (ISS). A bivariate latent growth curve model using the data at age 24, 27, and 30 years revealed that, as predicted, a balanced time orientation contributed to identity development. We mainly discuss the results of the analyses in terms of the role of a balanced time orientation in revising identity as they accommodate a wider range of life experiences during the transition to adulthood.

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