The Baylor Religion Survey (BRS) is a national population survey of religious characteristics, orientations, and attitudes modeled after the General Social Survey. This article provides an overview of the content of the 2005 BRS along with a detailed description of our methods of data collection and some descriptive characteristics from our sample of 1,721 adults in the United States. A third of the survey is dedicated solely to religion items focusing on affiliation, identity, belief, experience, and commitment. Two-thirds of the survey is dedicated to topical modules that will be rotated in subsequent administrations. We briefly describe the content of these modules and discuss how our data compare to the 2004 General Social Survey.