This study evaluates the psychometric properties and criterion validity of the Religious Social Support (RSS) Scale in a diverse, representative community sample of new mothers (N= 1,156). Results indicated that two factors best represented the RSS. Criterion validity was established by demonstrating that the RSS was associated with relational and health outcomes. However, these associations were reduced to statistical insignificance once a general measure of social support was included as a covariate. There were no indications that race moderated either the psychometric properties of the RSS or the relationships between social support and outcomes. Qualitative analyses indicated that religious social support is a salient construct in the lives of women that we studied and suggested ways to improve future developments of RSS scales.