• 1
    Savage DC. Microbial ecology of the gastrointestinal tract. Annu Rev Microbiol 1977; 31: 10733.
  • 2
    van der Waaij D. Colonization pattern of the digestive tract by potentially pathogenic microorganisms: colonization-controlling mechanisms and consequences for antibiotic treatment. Infection 1983; 11; 902.
  • 3
    Mitsuoka T, Kaneuchi C. Ecology of the bifidobacteria. Am J Clin Nutr 1977; 30: 1799810.
  • 4
    Nord CE, Edlund C. Ecological effects of antimicrobial agents on the human intestinal microflora. Microb Ecol Health Dis 1991; 4: 193207.
  • 5
    Heimdahl A, Nord CE. Effect of phenoxymethylpenicillin and clindamycin on the oral, throat and faecal microflora of man. Scand J Infect Dis 1979; 11: 23342.
  • 6
    Lidbeck A, Edlund C, Gustafsson J-Å, Kager L, Nord CE. Impact of Lactobacillus acidophilus on the normal intestinal microflora after administration of two antimicrobial agents. Infection 1988; 16: 32936.
  • 7
    Orrhage K, Brismar B, Nord CE. Effect of supplements with Bifidobacterium longum and Lactobacillus acidophilus on the intestinal microbiota during administration of clindamycin. Microb Ecol Health Dis 1994; 7: 1727.
  • 8
    Golledge CL, McKenzie T, Riley T. Extended spectrum cephalosporins and Clostridium difficile. J Antimicrob Chemother 1989; 23: 92931.
  • 9
    George WL, Rolfe RD, Finegold SM. Clostridium difficile and its cytotoxin in feces of patients with antimicrobial agent-associated diarrhea and miscellaneous conditions. J Clin Microbiol 1982; 15: 104953.
  • 10
    George WL, Volpicelli NA, Stiner DB, et al. Relapse of pseudomembraneous colitis after vancomycin therapy. N Engl J Med 1979; 301: 414.
  • 11
    Gorbach SL, Chang T-W, Goldin B. Successful treatment of relapsing Clostridium difficile colitis with Lactobacillus GG. Lancet 1987; ii: 1519.
  • 12
    Lidbeck A, Gustafsson J-Å, Nord CE. Impact of Lactobacillus acidophilus supplements on the human oropharyngeal and intestinal microflora. Scand J Infect Dis 1987; 19: 5317.
  • 13
    Orrhage K, Lidbeck A, Nord CE. Effect of Bifidobacterium longum supplements on the human faecal microflora. Microb Ecol Health Dis 1991; 4: 26570.
  • 14
    Isolauri E, Juntunen M, Rautanen T, Sillanaukee P, Koivula T. A human lactobacillus strain (Lactobacillus casei sp. strain GG) promotes recovery from acute diarrhea in children. Pediatrics 1991; 88: 907.
  • 15
    Fuller R. Probiotics in man and animals. J Appl Bacteriol 1989; 66: 36578.
  • 16
    Black F, Einarsson K, Lidbeck A, Orrhage K, Nord CE. Effect of lactic acid producing bacteria on the human intestinal microflora during ampicillin treatment. Scand J Infect Dis 1991; 23: 24754.
  • 17
    Siitonen S, Vapaatalo H, Salminen S, et al. Effect of Lactobacillus GG yoghurt in prevention of antibiotic associated diarrhea. Ann Med 1990; 22: 5760.
  • 18
    Hartley MG, Hudson MJ, Swarbrick ET, et al. The rectal mucosa-associated microflora in patients with ulcerative colitis. J Med Microbiol 1992; 36: 96103.
  • 19
    Teraguchi S, Uehara M, Ogasa K, Mitsuoka T. Enumeration of bifidobacteria in dairy products. Jap J Bacteriol 1978; 33: 75362. Cited in Dairy Sci Abstr 1980; 42: 253–4.
  • 20
    Marsh WW, Hentges DJ, Chavarria JF, et al. Influence of orally administered antibiotics on faecal pH and volatile fatty acid concentrations of infants and young children. Microb Ecol Health Dis 1990; 3: 713.
  • 21
    Barza M, Giuliano M, Jacobus NV, Gorbach SL. Effect of broad-spectrum parenteral antibiotics on ‘colonization resistance’ of intestinal microflora of humans. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1987; 31: 7237.
  • 22
    Gorbach SL, Barza M, Giuliano M, Jacobus NV. Colonization resistance of the human intestinal microflora: testing the hypothesis in normal volunteers. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 1988; 7: 98102.
  • 23
    Aronsson B, Möllby R, Nord CE. Antimicrobial agents and Clostridium difficile in acute enteric disease: epidemiological data from Sweden 1980–1982. J Infect Dis 1985; 151: 47681.
  • 24
    Colombel JF, Cortot A, Neut C, Romond C. Yoghurt with Bifidobacterium longum reduces erythromycin-induced gastro-intestinal effects. Lancet 1987; ii: 43.
  • 25
    Rolfe R, Helebian S, Finegold S. Bacterial interference between Clostridium difficile and normal fecal flora. J Infect Dis 1981; 143: 4705.
  • 26
    Conway PL, Gorbach SL, Goldin BR. Survival of lactic acid bacteria in the human stomach and adhesion to intestinal cells. J Dairy Sci 1987; 70: 112.
  • 27
    Black FT, Andersen PL, Ørskov J, Ørskov F, Gaarslev K, Laulund S. Prophylactic efficacy of lactobacilli on traveller's diarrhea. In SteffenR, ed. Travel medicine. Conference on International Travel Medicine 1. Zürich, Switzerland, Berlin : Springer-Verlag, 1985: 3335.
  • 28
    Nielsen OH, Jørgensen S, Pedersen K, Justesen T. Microbial evaluation of jejunal aspirates and faecal samples after oral administration of bifidobacteria and lactic acid bacteria. J Appl Bacteriol 1994; 76: 46974.