The incidence of tuberculosis (TB) is currently increasing in HIV-infected patients living in Africa and Asia, where TB endemicity is high, reflecting the susceptibility of this group of patients to mycobacteria belonging to the TB group. In this population, extension of multiple resistance to anti-tuberculous drugs is also a matter of anxiety. HIV-induced immunosuppression modifies the clinical presentation of TB, resulting in atypical signs and symptoms, and more frequent extrapulmonary dissemination. The treatment of TB is also more difficult to manage in HIV-infected patients, particularly with regard to pharmacological interactions secondary to inhibition or induction of cytochrome P450 enzymes by protease inhibitors with rifampicin or rifabutin, respectively. Finally, immune restoration induced by highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) in developed countries may be responsible for a paradoxical worsening of TB manifestations.