This study investigated whether the prevalence of human papilloma virus (HPV) in association with Chlamydia trachomatis, herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 and/or HSV-2 was greater in high-grade than in low-grade or control cervical biopsy specimens. HPV-positive (n = 86) and HPV-negative (n = 213) women were screened for HPV, HSV and C. trachomatis by PCR. The most common HPV genotypes were HPV-16, HPV-6 and HPV-33; mixed HPV infection (n = 12) was also seen. A higher prevalence of C. trachomatis, HSV-1 and HSV-2 was found in HPV-positive samples. High-risk HPV genotypes and combined HPV + C. trachomatis or HPV + HSV-1, but not HSV-2, infections were associated with a greater risk of developing cervical carcinoma.