Guidelines for the validation and application of typing methods for use in bacterial epidemiology


Corresponding author and reprint requests: A. van Belkum, Erasmus MC, Department of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Dr. Molewaterplein 40, 3015 GD Rotterdam, The Netherlands. E-mail:


For bacterial typing to be useful, the development, validation and appropriate application of typing methods must follow unified criteria. Over a decade ago, ESGEM, the ESCMID (Europen Society for Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases) Study Group on Epidemiological Markers, produced guidelines for optimal use and quality assessment of the then most frequently used typing procedures. We present here an update of these guidelines, taking into account the spectacular increase in the number and quality of typing methods made available over the past decade. Newer and older, phenotypic and genotypic methods for typing of all clinically relevant bacterial species are described according to their principles, advantages and disadvantages. Criteria for their evaluation and application and the interpretation of their results are proposed. Finally, the issues of reporting, standardisation, quality assessment and international networks are discussed. It must be emphasised that typing results can never stand alone and need to be interpreted in the context of all available epidemiological, clinical and demographical data relating to the infectious disease under investigation. A strategic effort on the part of all workers in the field is thus mandatory to combat emerging infectious diseases, as is financial support from national and international granting bodies and health authorities.