SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • 1
    Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine. Levels of evidence and grades of recommendation. http://www.cebm.net/levels_of_evidence.asp , 2001.
  • 2
    Institut National de Santé Publique du Québec. Prévention et contrôlle de la diarrhée nosocomiale associée au Clostridium difficile au Québec. http://www.inspq.qc.ca/pdf/publications/362-CDifficile-LignesDirectrices-3eEdition.pdf , 2005.
  • 3
    Werkgroep Infectie Preventie (WIP). Infectiepreventie maatregelen bij Clostridium difficile. http://www.wip.nl/free_content/ClostriumdifficileWIP1.pdf , 2005.
  • 4
    National Clostridium difficile Standards Group. Report to the Department of Health. J Hosp Infect 2004; 56 (suppl 1): 138.
  • 5
    Ministere de la Sante et des Solidarites: Direction Generale de la Sante. Relatif à la maîtrise de la diffusion des infections à Clostridium diffiicle dans les établissements de senté francais. http://www.sante.gouv.fr/htm/dossiers/cshpf/a_mt_220906_clostridium.pdf , 2006.
  • 6
    Bartlett JG, Chang TW, Gurwith M et al. Antibiotic-associated pseudomembranous colitis due to toxin-producing clostridia. N Engl J Med 1978; 298: 531534.
  • 7
    McFarland LV, Surawicz CM, Stamm WE. Risk factors for Clostridium difficile carriage and C. difficile-associated diarrhea in a cohort of hospitalized patients. J Infect Dis 1990; 162: 678684.
  • 8
    Brown E, Talbot GH, Axelrod P et al. Risk factors for Clostridium difficile toxin-associated diarrhea. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1990; 11: 283290.
  • 9
    Safdar N, Maki DG. The commonality of risk factors for nosocomial colonization and infection with antimicrobial-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus, gram-negative bacilli, Clostridium difficile, and Candida. Ann Intern Med 2002; 136: 834844.
  • 10
    Shah S, Lewis A, Leopold D et al. Gastric acid suppression does not promote clostridial diarrhoea in the elderly. Q J Med 2000; 93: 175181.
  • 11
    Cunningham R, Dale B, Undy B et al. Proton pump inhibitors as a risk factor for Clostridium difficile diarrhoea. J Hosp Infect 2003; 54: 243245.
  • 12
    Johnson S, Clabots CR, Linn FV et al. Nosocomial Clostridium difficile colonisation and disease. Lancet 1990; 336: 97100.
  • 13
    Barbut F, Mario N, Frottier J et al. Use of the arbitrary primer polymerase chain reaction for investigating an outbreak of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea in AIDS patients. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 1993; 12: 794795.
  • 14
    Kuijper EJ, Debast SB, Van Kregten E et al. Clostridium difficile ribotype  027, toxinotype  III in The Netherlands. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 2005; 149: 20872089.
  • 15
    Teare EL, Corless D, Peacock A. Clostridium difficile in district general hospitals. J Hosp Infect 1998; 39: 241242.
  • 16
    Roberts K, Smith CF, Snelling AM et al. Aerial dissemination of Clostridium difficile spores. BMC Infect Dis 2008; 8: 7.
  • 17
    McDonald LC, Killgore GE, Thompson A et al. An epidemic, toxin gene-variant strain of Clostridium difficile. N Engl J Med 2005; 353: 24332441.
  • 18
    Kuijper EJ, Coignard B, Tull P. Emergence of Clostridium difficile-associated disease in North America and Europe. Clin Microbiol Infect 2006; 12 (suppl 6): 218.
  • 19
    Akerlund T, Svenungsson B, Lagergren A et al. Correlation of disease severity with fecal toxin levels in patients with Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea and distribution of PCR ribotypes and toxin yields in vitro of corresponding isolates. J Clin Microbiol 2006; 44: 353358.
  • 20
    Miller MA, Hyland M, Ofner-Agostini M et al. Morbidity, mortality, and healthcare burden of nosocomial Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea in Canadian hospitals. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2002; 23: 137140.
  • 21
    Pepin J, Valiquette L, Cossette B. Mortality attributable to nosocomial Clostridium difficile-associated disease during an epidemic caused by a hypervirulent strain in Quebec. C Med Assoc J 2005; 173: 10371042.
  • 22
    Van Den Berg RJ, Vaessen N, Endtz HP et al. Evaluation of real-time PCR and conventional diagnostic methods for the detection of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea in a prospective multicentre study. J Med Microbiol 2007; 56: 3642.
  • 23
    Bricker E, Garg R, Nelson R et al. Antibiotic treatment for Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2005; CD004610.
  • 24
    Wilcox MH, Cunniffe JG, Trundle C et al. Financial burden of hospital-acquired Clostridium difficile infection. J Hosp Infect 1996; 34: 2330.
  • 25
    Outbreak Database. http://www.outbreak-database.com , 2006.
  • 26
    Siegel D, Rhinehart E, Jackson M et al. Management of multidrug-resistant organisms in healthcare in healthcare settings, 2006. http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dhqp/pdf/ar/mdroGuideline2006.pdf , 2006.
  • 27
    Curtis V, Cairncross S. Effect of washing hands with soap on diarrhoea risk in the community: a systematic review. Lancet Infect Dis 2003; 3: 275281.
  • 28
    Donskey CJ, Ray AJ, Hoyen CK et al. Colonization and infection with multiple nosocomial pathogens among patients colonized with vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2003; 24: 242245.
  • 29
    Stone SP, Teare L, Cookson B. Guiding hands of our teachers. Hand-hygiene Liaison Group. Lancet 2001; 357: 479480.
  • 30
    Ferroni A, Merckx J, Ancelle T et al. Nosocomial outbreak of Clostridium difficile diarrhea in a pediatric service. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 1997; 16: 928933.
  • 31
    Climo MW, Israel DS, Wong ES et al. Hospital-wide restriction of clindamycin: effect on the incidence of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea and cost. Ann Intern Med 1998; 128: 989995.
  • 32
    Pazos R, Isusi A, Fernandez R et al. Nosocomial diarrhea outbreak due to Clostridium difficile in a vascular surgery department. Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin 2003; 21: 237241.
  • 33
    Al Barrak A, Embil J, Dyck B et al. An outbreak of toxin A negative, toxin B positive Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea in a Canadian tertiary-care hospital. Can Commun Dis Rep 1999; 25: 6569.
  • 34
    Kuijper EJ, Van Den Berg RJ, Debast S et al. Clostridium difficile ribotype  027, toxinotype  III, the Netherlands. Emerg Infect Dis 2006; 12: 827830.
  • 35
    Hanna H, Raad I, Gonzalez V et al. Control of nosocomial Clostridium difficile transmission in bone marrow transplant patients. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2000; 21: 226228.
  • 36
    Loo VG, Poirier L, Miller MA et al. A predominantly clonal multi-institutional outbreak of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea with high morbidity and mortality. N Engl J Med 2005; 353: 24422449.
  • 37
    McNulty C, Logan M, Donald IP et al. Successful control of Clostridium difficile infection in an elderly care unit through use of a restrictive antibiotic policy. J Antimicrob Chemother 1997; 40: 707711.
  • 38
    Smith A. Outbreak of Clostridium difficile infection in an English hospital linked to hypertoxin-producing strains in Canada and the US. Euro Surveill 2005; 10: E050630.
  • 39
    Sato H, Kato H, Koiwai K et al. A nosocomial outbreak of diarrhea caused by toxin A-negative, toxin B-positive Clostridium difficile in a cancer center hospital. Kansenshogaku Zasshi 2004; 78: 312319.
  • 40
    Popoola J, Swann A, Warwick G. Clostridium difficile in patients with renal failure—management of an outbreak using biotherapy. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2000; 15: 571574.
  • 41
    Kyne L, Merry C, O’Connell B et al. Factors associated with prolonged symptoms and severe disease due to Clostridium difficile. Age Ageing 1999; 28: 107113.
  • 42
    Synnott K, Mealy K, Merry C et al. Timing of surgery for fulminating pseudomembranous colitis. Br J Surg 1998; 85: 229231.
  • 43
    Zadik PM, Moore AP. Antimicrobial associations of an outbreak of diarrhoea due to Clostridium difficile. J Hosp Infect 1998; 39: 189193.
  • 44
    Perez-Gonzales J, Ventura Faci M, Samper Villagrasa M et al. Brote epidémico de enterocolitis necrotizante por Clostridium difficile en recién nacidos a término. An Esp Pediatr 1996; 44: 173175.
  • 45
    Hastie KJ, Weymont G, Lewis DA. An outbreak of Clostridium difficile associated diarrhoea in urological practice: a potential consequence of excessive antibiotic prophylaxis? J R Coll Surg Edinb 1989; 34: 146148.
  • 46
    McKay I, Coia JE, Poxton IR. Typing of Clostridium difficile causing diarrhoea in an orthopaedic ward. J Clin Pathol 1989; 42: 511515.
  • 47
    Clabots CR, Peterson LR, Gerding DN. Characterization of a nosocomial Clostridium difficile outbreak by using plasmid profile typing and clindamycin susceptibility testing. J Infect Dis 1988; 158: 731736.
  • 48
    Anderson CL, Collin MF, O’Keefe JP et al. A widespread epidemic of mild necrotizing enterocolitis of unknown cause. Am J Dis Child 1984; 138: 979983.
  • 49
    Kuijper EJ, De Weerdt J, Kato H et al. Nosocomial outbreak of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea due to a clindamycin-resistant enterotoxin A-negative strain. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2001; 20: 528534.
  • 50
    Muto CA, Pokrywka M, Shutt K et al. A large outbreak of Clostridium difficile-associated disease with an unexpected proportion of deaths and colectomies at a teaching hospital following increased fluoroquinolone use. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2005; 26: 273280.
  • 51
    Mekonen ET, Gerding DN, Sambol SP et al. Predominance of a single restriction endonuclease analysis group with intrahospital subgroup diversity among Clostridium difficile isolates at two Chicago hospitals. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2002; 23: 648652.
  • 52
    Manian FA, Meyer L, Jenne J. Clostridium difficile contamination of blood pressure cuffs: a call for a closer look at gloving practices in the era of universal precautions. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1996; 17: 180182.
  • 53
    Kaatz GW, Gitlin SD, Schaberg DR et al. Acquisition of Clostridium difficile from the hospital environment. Am J Epidemiol 1988; 127: 12891294.
  • 54
    Brooks S, Khan A, Stoica D et al. Reduction in vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus and Clostridium difficile infections following change to tympanic thermometers. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1998; 19: 333336.
  • 55
    Gaynes R, Rimland D, Killum E et al. Outbreak of Clostridium difficile infection in a long-term care facility: association with gatifloxacin use. Clin Infect Dis 2004; 38: 640645.
  • 56
    Komatsu M, Kato H, Aihara M et al. High frequency of antibiotic-associated diarrhea due to toxin A-negative, toxin B-positive Clostridium difficile in a hospital in Japan and risk factors for infection. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2003; 22: 525529.
  • 57
    Tachon M, Cattoen C, Blanckaert K et al. First cluster of C. difficile toxinotype  III, PCR-ribotype  027 associated disease in France: preliminary report. Euro Surveill 2006; 11: E060504.
  • 58
    McEllistrem MC, Carman RJ, Gerding DN et al. A hospital outbreak of Clostridium difficile disease associated with isolates carrying binary toxin genes. Clin Infect Dis 2005; 40: 265272.
  • 59
    Pulvirenti JJ, Gerding DN, Nathan C et al. Difference in the incidence of Clostridium difficile among patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus admitted to a public hospital and a private hospital. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2002; 23: 641647.
  • 60
    Talon D, Bailly P, Delmee M et al. Use of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis for investigation of an outbreak of Clostridium difficile infection among geriatric patients. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 1995; 14: 987993.
  • 61
    Blot E, Escande MC, Besson D et al. Outbreak of Clostridium difficile-related diarrhoea in an adult oncology unit: risk factors and microbiological characteristics. J Hosp Infect 2003; 53: 187192.
  • 62
    Foulke GE, Silva J Jr. Clostridium difficile in the intensive care unit: management problems and prevention issues. Crit Care Med 1989; 17: 822826.
  • 63
    Davey P, Brown E, Fenelon L et al. Interventions to improve antibiotic prescribing practices for hospital inpatients. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2005; CD003543.
  • 64
    Davey P, Brown E, Fenelon L et al. Systematic review of antimicrobial drug prescribing in hospitals. Emerg Infect Dis 2006; 12: 211216.
  • 65
    Stone SP, Cooper BS, Kibbler CC et al. The ORION statement: guidelines for transparent reporting of outbreak reports and intervention studies of nosocomial infection. Lancet Infect Dis 2007; 7: 282288.
  • 66
    Viscidi R, Willey S, Bartlett JG. Isolation rates and toxigenic potential of Clostridium difficile isolates from various patient populations. Gastroenterology 1981; 81: 59.
  • 67
    McFarland LV, Mulligan ME, Kwok RY et al. Nosocomial acquisition of Clostridium difficile infection. N Engl J Med 1989; 320: 204210.
  • 68
    Shim JK, Johnson S, Samore MH et al. Primary symptomless colonisation by Clostridium difficile and decreased risk of subsequent diarrhoea. Lancet 1998; 351: 633636.
  • 69
    Samore MH, DeGirolami PC, Tlucko A et al. Clostridium difficile colonization and diarrhea at a tertiary care hospital. Clin Infect Dis 1994; 18: 181187.
  • 70
    Barbut F, Corthier G, Charpak Y et al. Prevalence and pathogenicity of Clostridium difficile in hospitalized patients. A French multicenter study. Arch Intern Med 1996; 156: 14491454.
  • 71
    Riggs MM, Sethi AK, Zabarsky TF et al. Asymptomatic carriers are a potential source for transmission of epidemic and nonepidemic Clostridium difficile strains among long-term care facility residents. Clin Infect Dis 2007; 45: 992998.
  • 72
    Johnson S, Homann SR, Bettin KM et al. Treatment of asymptomatic Clostridium difficile carriers (fecal excretors) with vancomycin or metronidazole. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Ann Intern Med 1992; 117: 297302.
  • 73
    Samore MH. Epidemiology of nosocomial Clostridium difficile diarrhoea. J Hosp Infect 1999; 43 (suppl): S183S190.
  • 74
    Fekety R, Kim KH, Brown D et al. Epidemiology of antibiotic-associated colitis; isolation of Clostridium difficile from the hospital environment. Am J Med 1981; 70: 906908.
  • 75
    Kim KH, Fekety R, Batts DH et al. Isolation of Clostridium difficile from the environment and contacts of patients with antibiotic-associated colitis. J Infect Dis 1981; 143: 4250.
  • 76
    Struelens MJ, Maas A, Nonhoff C et al. Control of nosocomial transmission of Clostridium difficile based on sporadic case surveillance. Am J Med 1991; 91: 138S144S.
  • 77
    Tal S, Gurevich A, Guller V et al. Risk factors for recurrence of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea in the elderly. Scand J Infect Dis 2002; 34: 594597.
  • 78
    Pepin J, Routhier S, Gagnon S et al. Management and outcomes of a first recurrence of Clostridium difficile-associated disease in Quebec, Canada. Clin Infect Dis 2006; 42: 758764.
  • 79
    Drudy D, Harnedy N, Fanning S et al. Emergence and control of fluoroquinolone-resistant, toxin A-negative, toxin B-positive Clostridium difficile. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2007; 28: 932940.
  • 80
    Brazier JS, Duerden BI. Guidelines for optimal surveillance of Clostridium difficile infection in hospitals. Commun Dis Public Health 1998; 1: 229230.
  • 81
    Beaujean DJ, Blok HE, Vandenbroucke-Grauls CM et al. Surveillance of nosocomial infections in geriatric patients. J Hosp Infect 1997; 36: 275284.
  • 82
    Cartolano GL, Moulies ME, Seguier JC et al. A parent as a vector of Salmonella brandenburg nosocomial infection in a neonatal intensive care unit. Clin Microbiol Infect 2003; 9: 560562.
  • 83
    Siegel D, Rhinehart E, Jackson M et al. Guideline for isolation precautions: preventing transmission of infectious agents in healthcare settings 2007. http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dhqp/pdf/guidelines/Isolation2007.pdf , 2007.
  • 84
    Bobulsky GS, Al Nassir WN, Riggs MM et al. Clostridium difficile skin contamination in patients with C. difficile-associated disease. Clin Infect Dis 2008; 46: 447450.
  • 85
    Testore GP, Pantosti A, Cerquetti M et al. Evidence for cross-infection in an outbreak of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea in a surgical unit. J Med Microbiol 1988; 26: 125128.
  • 86
    Cartmill TD, Panigrahi H, Worsley MA et al. Management and control of a large outbreak of diarrhoea due to Clostridium difficile. J Hosp Infect 1994; 27: 115.
  • 87
    Bennett GC, Allen E, Millard PH. Clostridium difficile diarrhoea: a highly infectious organism. Age Ageing 1984; 13: 363366.
  • 88
    Boone N, Eagan JA, Gillern P et al. Evaluation of an interdisciplinary re-isolation policy for patients with previous Clostridium difficile diarrhea. Am J Infect Control 1998; 26: 584587.
  • 89
    Cherifi S, Delmee M, Van Broeck J et al. Management of an outbreak of Clostridium difficile-associated disease among geriatric patients. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2006; 27: 12001205.
  • 90
    Surawicz CM, McFarland LV, Greenberg RN et al. The search for a better treatment for recurrent Clostridium difficile disease: use of high-dose vancomycin combined with Saccharomyces boulardii. Clin Infect Dis 2000; 31: 10121017.
  • 91
    Boyce JM, Pittet D. Guideline for Hand Hygiene in Health-Care Settings. Recommendations of the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee and the HICPAC/SHEA/APIC/IDSA Hand Hygiene Task Force. Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America/Association for Professionals in Infection Control/Infectious Diseases Society of America. MMWR Recomm Rep 2002; 51: 145.
  • 92
    Pittet D, Allegranzi B, Sax H et al. Evidence-based model for hand transmission during patient care and the role of improved practices. Lancet Infect Dis 2006; 6: 641652.
  • 93
    WHO guidelines on hand hygiene in health care (advanced draft). http://www.who.int/patientsafety/information_centre/ghhad_download/en/index.html , 2007.
  • 94
    Samore MH, Venkataraman L, DeGirolami PC et al. Clinical and molecular epidemiology of sporadic and clustered cases of nosocomial Clostridium difficile diarrhea. Am J Med 1996; 100: 3240.
  • 95
    Romanenko VI. Preservation of bacterial spores in 96% ethyl alcohol. Mikrobiologiia 1982; 51: 691692.
  • 96
    Barbut F, Gotty S, Neyme D et al. Clostridium difficile: hygiène des mains et environment. Hygiènes 2003; 11: 449455.
  • 97
    Gordin FM, Schultz ME, Huber RA et al. Reduction in nosocomial transmission of drug-resistant bacteria after introduction of an alcohol-based handrub. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2005; 26: 650653.
  • 98
    Boyce JM, Ligi C, Kohan C et al. Lack of association between the increased incidence of Clostridium difficile-associated disease and the increasing use of alcohol-based hand rubs. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2006; 27: 479483.
  • 99
    Bettin K, Clabots C, Mathie P et al. Effectiveness of liquid soap vs. chlorhexidine gluconate for the removal of Clostridium difficile from bare hands and gloved hands. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1994; 15: 697702.
  • 100
    Leischner J, Johnson S, Sambol S et al. Effect of alcohol hand gels and chlorhexidine hand wash in removing spores of Clostridium difficile (CD) from hands. 45th Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (ICCAC). Washington, DC, 2005 [abstract].
  • 101
    Nolan NP, Kelly CP, Humphreys JF et al. An epidemic of pseudomembranous colitis: importance of person to person spread. Gut 1987; 28: 14671473.
  • 102
    Garner JS. Guideline for isolation precautions in hospitals. The Hospital Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1996; 17: 5380.
  • 103
    Johnson S, Gerding DN, Olson MM et al. Prospective, controlled study of vinyl glove use to interrupt Clostridium difficile nosocomial transmission. Am J Med 1990; 88: 137140.
  • 104
    Doebbeling BN, Pfaller MA, Houston AK et al. Removal of nosocomial pathogens from the contaminated glove. Implications for glove reuse and handwashing. Ann Intern Med 1988; 109: 394398.
  • 105
    Perry C, Marshall R, Jones E. Bacterial contamination of uniforms. J Hosp Infect 2001; 48: 238241.
  • 106
    Nath SK, Thornley JH, Kelly M et al. A sustained outbreak of Clostridium difficile in a general hospital: persistence of a toxigenic clone in four units. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1994; 15: 382389.
  • 107
    Verity P, Wilcox MH, Fawley W et al. Prospective evaluation of environmental contamination by Clostridium difficile in isolation side rooms. J Hosp Infect 2001; 49: 204209.
  • 108
    Wilcox MH, Fawley WN, Wigglesworth N et al. Comparison of the effect of detergent versus hypochlorite cleaning on environmental contamination and incidence of Clostridium difficile infection. J Hosp Infect 2003; 54: 109114.
  • 109
    Fawley WN, Wilcox MH. Molecular epidemiology of endemic Clostridium difficile infection. Epidemiol Infect 2001; 126: 343350.
  • 110
    Nakamura S, Yamakawa K, Izumi J et al. Germinability and heat resistance of spores of Clostridium difficile strains. Microbiol Immunol 1985; 29: 113118.
  • 111
    Russell AD. Bacterial resistance to disinfectants: present knowledge and future problems. J Hosp Infect 1999; 43 (suppl): S57S68.
  • 112
    Savage AM, Alford RH. Nosocomial spread of Clostridium difficile. Infect Control 1983; 4: 3133.
  • 113
    Malamou-Ladas H, O’Farrell S, Nash JQ et al. Isolation of Clostridium difficile from patients and the environment of hospital wards. J Clin Pathol 1983; 36: 8892.
  • 114
    Wilcox MH. Cleaning up Clostridium difficile infection. Lancet 1996; 348: 767768.
  • 115
    Wilcox MH, Fawley WN. Hospital disinfectants and spore formation by Clostridium difficile. Lancet 2000; 356: 1324.
  • 116
    Sehulster L, Chinn RY. Guidelines for environmental infection control in health-care facilities. Recommendations of CDC and the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC). MMWR Recomm Rep 2003; 52: 142.
  • 117
    Fawley WN, Underwood S, Freeman J et al. Efficacy of hospital cleaning agents and germicides against epidemic Clostridium difficile strains. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2007; 28: 920925.
  • 118
    Mayfield JL, Leet T, Miller J et al. Environmental control to reduce transmission of Clostridium difficile. Clin Infect Dis 2000; 31: 9951000.
  • 119
    Oliet S, Sorin SM. Inhibition of the corrosive effect of sodium hypochlorite on carbon steel endodontic instruments. J Endod 1978; 4: 1216.
  • 120
    Rutala WA, Gergen MF, Weber DJ. Inactivation of Clostridium difficile spores by disinfectants. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1993; 14: 3639.
  • 121
    Block C. The effect of Perasafe and sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC) against spores of Clostridium difficile and Bacillus atrophaeus on stainless steel and polyvinyl chloride surfaces. J Hosp Infect 2004; 57: 144148.
  • 122
    Vizcaino-Alcaide MJ, Herruzo-Cabrera R, Fernandez-Acenero MJ. Comparison of the disinfectant efficacy of Perasafe and 2% glutaraldehyde in in vitro tests. J Hosp Infect 2003; 53: 124128.
  • 123
    Herruzo-Cabrera R, Vizcaino-Alcaide MJ, Rodriguez J. Comparison of the microbicidal efficacy on germ carriers of several tertiary amine compounds with ortho-phthalaldehyde and Perasafe. J Hosp Infect 2006; 63: 7378.
  • 124
    Jernigan JA, Siegman-Igra Y, Guerrant RC et al. A randomized crossover study of disposable thermometers for prevention of Clostridium difficile and other nosocomial infections. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1998; 19: 494499.
  • 125
    Hughes CE, Gebhard RL, Peterson LR et al. Efficacy of routine fiberoptic endoscope cleaning and disinfection for killing Clostridium difficile. Gastrointest Endosc 1986; 32: 79.
  • 126
    Wullt M, Odenholt I, Walder M. Activity of three disinfectants and acidified nitrite against Clostridium difficile spores. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2003; 24: 765768.
  • 127
    Kreisel D, Savel TG, Silver AL et al. Surgical antibiotic prophylaxis and Clostridium difficile toxin positivity. Arch Surg 1995; 130: 989993.
  • 128
    Oldfield EC III. Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea: risk factors, diagnostic methods, and treatment. Rev Gastroenterol Disord 2004; 4: 186195.
  • 129
    Thomas C, Stevenson M, Riley TV. Antibiotics and hospital-acquired Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea: a systematic review. J Antimicrob Chemother 2003; 51: 13391350.
  • 130
    Wilcox MH, Freeman J. Epidemic Clostridium difficile. N Engl J Med 2006; 354: 11991203.
  • 131
    Kyne L, Warny M, Qamar A et al. Association between antibody response to toxin A and protection against recurrent Clostridium difficile diarrhoea. Lancet 2001; 357: 189193.
  • 132
    Baines SD, Saxton K, Freeman J et al. Tigecycline does not induce proliferation or cytotoxin production by epidemic Clostridium difficile strains in a human gut model. J Antimicrob Chemother 2006; 58: 10621065.
  • 133
    Dellit TH, Owens RC, McGowan JE Jr et al. Infectious Diseases Society of America and the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America guidelines for developing an institutional program to enhance antimicrobial stewardship. Clin Infect Dis 2007; 44: 159177.
  • 134
    Valiquette L, Cossette B, Garant MP et al. Impact of a reduction in the use of high-risk antibiotics on the course of an epidemic of Clostridium difficile-associated disease caused by the hypervirulent NAP1/027 strain. Clin Infect Dis 2007; 45 (suppl 2): S112S121.
  • 135
    Wistrom J, Norrby SR, Myhre EB et al. Frequency of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea in 2462 antibiotic-treated hospitalized patients: a prospective study. J Antimicrob Chemother 2001; 47: 4350.
  • 136
    Walker KJ, Gilliland SS, Vance-Bryan K et al. Clostridium difficile colonization in residents of long-term care facilities: prevalence and risk factors. J Am Geriatr Soc 1993; 41: 940946.
  • 137
    Fowler S, Webber A, Cooper BS et al. Successful use of feedback to improve antibiotic prescribing and reduce Clostridium difficile infection: a controlled interrupted time series. J Antimicrob Chemother 2007; 59: 990995.
  • 138
    Aronsson B, Mollby R, Nord CE. Antimicrobial agents and Clostridium difficile in acute enteric disease: epidemiological data from Sweden, 1980–1982. J Infect Dis 1985; 151: 476481.
  • 139
    Raveh D, Rabinowitz B, Breuer GS et al. Risk factors for Clostridium difficile toxin-positive nosocomial diarrhoea. Int J Antimicrob Agents 2006; 28: 231237.
  • 140
    Gifford AH, Kirkland KB. Risk factors for Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea on an adult hematology–oncology ward. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2006; 25: 751755.
  • 141
    Guyot A, Rawlins MD, Barrett SP. Clarithromycin appears to be linked with Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea in the elderly. J Antimicrob Chemother 2000; 46: 642643.
  • 142
    Modena S, Bearelly D, Swartz K et al. Clostridium difficile among hospitalized patients receiving antibiotics: a case-control study. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2005; 26: 685690.
  • 143
    Freeman J, Wilcox MH. Ureidopenicillins and risk of Clostridium difficile infection. J Antimicrob Chemother 2001; 47: 719.
  • 144
    Samore MH, Venkataraman L, DeGirolami PC et al. Genotypic and phenotypic analysis of Clostridium difficile correlated with previous antibiotic exposure. Microb Drug Resist 2006; 12: 2328.
  • 145
    Thomas C, Stevenson M, Williamson DJ et al. Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea: epidemiological data from Western Australia associated with a modified antibiotic policy. Clin Infect Dis 2002; 35: 14571462.
  • 146
    Pepin J, Saheb N, Coulombe MA et al. Emergence of fluoroquinolones as the predominant risk factor for Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea: a cohort study during an epidemic in Quebec. Clin Infect Dis 2005; 41: 12541260.
  • 147
    Yip C, Loeb M, Salama S et al. Quinolone use as a risk factor for nosocomial Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2001; 22: 572575.
  • 148
    McCusker ME, Harris AD, Perencevich E et al. Fluoroquinolone use and Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea. Emerg Infect Dis 2003; 9: 730733.
  • 149
    Goorhuis A, Van Der Kooi T, Vaessen N et al. Spread and epidemiology of Clostridium difficile polymerase chain reaction ribotype  027/toxinotype  III in The Netherlands. Clin Infect Dis 2007; 45: 695703.
  • 150
    Wilcox MH, Freeman J, Fawley W et al. Long-term surveillance of cefotaxime and piperacillin–tazobactam prescribing and incidence of Clostridium difficile diarrhoea. J Antimicrob Chemother 2004; 54: 168172.
  • 151
    Settle CD, Wilcox MH, Fawley WN et al. Prospective study of the risk of Clostridium difficile diarrhoea in elderly patients following treatment with cefotaxime or piperacillin–tazobactam. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 1998; 12: 12171223.
  • 152
    Baines SD, Freeman J, Wilcox MH. Effects of piperacillin/tazobactam on Clostridium difficile growth and toxin production in a human gut model. J Antimicrob Chemother 2005; 55: 974982.
  • 153
    Carling P, Fung T, Killion A et al. Favorable impact of a multidisciplinary antibiotic management program conducted during 7 years. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2003; 24: 699706.
  • 154
    Davey P. The potential role of computerized decision support systems to improve empirical antibiotic prescribing. J Antimicrob Chemother 2006; 58: 11051106.
  • 155
    Stone S, Kibbler C, How A et al. Feedback is necessary in strategies to reduce hospital acquired infection. BMJ 2000; 321: 302303.
  • 156
    Grimshaw JM, Thomas RE, MacLennan G et al. Effectiveness and efficiency of guideline dissemination and implementation strategies. Health Technol Assess 2004; 8: 372.
  • 157
    Jamtvedt G, Young JM, Kristoffersen DT et al. Audit and feedback: effects on professional practice and health care outcomes. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2006; CD000259.
  • 158
    Jamtvedt G, Young JM, Kristoffersen DT et al. Audit and feedback: effects on professional practice and health care outcomes. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2003; CD000259.
  • 159
    Jamtvedt G, Young JM, Kristoffersen DT et al. Does telling people what they have been doing change what they do? A systematic review of the effects of audit and feedback. Qual Saf Health Care 2006; 15: 433436.
  • 160
    Ansari F, Gray K, Nathwani D et al. Outcomes of an intervention to improve hospital antibiotic prescribing: interrupted time series with segmented regression analysis. J Antimicrob Chemother 2003; 52: 842848.
  • 161
    Stone SP, Beric V, Quick A et al. The effect of an enhanced infection-control policy on the incidence of Clostridium difficile infection and methicillin-resistant Staphyloccocus aureus colonization in acute elderly medical patients. Age Ageing 1998; 27: 561568.
  • 162
    Surawicz CM, Elmer GW, Speelman P et al. Prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea by Saccharomyces boulardii: a prospective study. Gastroenterology 1989; 96: 981988.
  • 163
    McFarland LV, Surawicz CM, Greenberg RN et al. Prevention of beta-lactam-associated diarrhea by Saccharomyces boulardii compared with placebo. Am J Gastroenterol 1995; 90: 439448.
  • 164
    Lewis SJ, Potts LF, Barry RE. The lack of therapeutic effect of Saccharomyces boulardii in the prevention of antibiotic-related diarrhoea in elderly patients. J Infect 1998; 36: 171174.
  • 165
    Thomas MR, Litin SC, Osmon DR et al. Lack of effect of Lactobacillus GG on antibiotic-associated diarrhea: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Mayo Clin Proc 2001; 76: 883889.
  • 166
    McFarland LV. Meta-analysis of probiotics for the prevention of antibiotic associated diarrhea and the treatment of Clostridium difficile disease. Am J Gastroenterol 2006; 101: 812822.
    Direct Link:
  • 167
    Dendukuri N, Costa V, McGregor M et al. Probiotic therapy for the prevention and treatment of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea: a systematic review. C Med Assoc J 2005; 173: 167170.
  • 168
    Pillai A, Nelson R. Probiotics for treatment of Clostridium difficile-associated colitus in adults. Conchrane Database System Rev 2008; CD 004611.
  • 169
    Hickson M, D’Souza AL, Muthu N et al. Use of probiotic Lactobacillus preparation to prevent diarrhoea associated with antibiotics: randomised double blind placebo controlled trial. BMJ 2007; 335: 8083.
  • 170
    Wilcox MH, Sandoe JA. Probiotics and diarrhea: data are not widely applicable. BMJ 2007; 335: 171.
  • 171
    Muto CA, Blank MK, Marsh JW et al. Control of an outbreak of infection with the hypervirulent Clostridium difficile BI strain in a university hospital using a comprehensive ‘bundle’ approach. Clin Infect Dis 2007; 45: 12661273.
  • 172
    Zafar AB, Gaydos LA, Furlong WB et al. Effectiveness of infection control program in controlling nosocomial Clostridium difficile. Am J Infect Control 1998; 26: 588593.
  • 173
    McFarland LV, Coyle MB, Kremer WH et al. Rectal swab cultures for Clostridium difficile surveillance studies. J Clin Microbiol 1987; 25: 22412242.
  • 174
    Kofsky P, Rosen L, Reed J et al. Clostridium difficile—a common and costly colitis. Dis Colon Rectum 1991; 34: 244248.
  • 175
    Yee J, Dixon CM, McLean AP et al. Clostridium difficile disease in a department of surgery. The significance of prophylactic antibiotics. Arch Surg 1991; 126: 241246.
  • 176
    Weber DJ, Sickbert-Bennett E, Gergen MF et al. Efficacy of selected hand hygiene agents used to remove Bacillus atrophaeus (a surrogate of Bacillus anthracis) from contaminated hands. JAMA 2003; 289: 12741277.
  • 177
    Muto CA, Jernigan JA, Ostrowsky BE et al. SHEA guideline for preventing nosocomial transmission of multidrug-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2003; 24: 362386.
  • 178
    Delmee M, Vandercam B, Avesani V et al. Epidemiology and prevention of Clostridium difficile infections in a leukemia unit. Eur J Clin Microbiol 1987; 6: 623627.