• 1
    Cunha BA. The atypical pneumonias: clinical diagnosis and importance. Clin Microbiol Infect 2006; 12 (suppl 3): 1224.
  • 2
    Berdal BP, Scheel O, Ogaard AR, Hoel T, Gutteberg TJ, Anestad G. Spread of subclinical Chlamydia pneumoniae infection in a closed community. Scand J Infect Dis 1992; 24: 431436.
  • 3
    Normann E, Gnarpe J, Gnarpe H, Wettergren B. Chlamydia pneumoniae in children attending day-care centers in Gavle, Sweden. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1998; 17: 474478.
  • 4
    Hyman CL, Roblin PM, Gaydos CA, Quinn TC, Schachter J, Hammerschlag MR. Prevalence of asymptomatic nasopharyngeal carriage of Chlamydia pneumoniae in subjectively healthy adults: assessment by polymerase chain reaction–enzyme immunoassay and culture. Clin Infect Dis 1995; 20: 11741178.
  • 5
    Verkooyen RP, Willemse D, Hiep-van Casteren SC et al. Evaluation of PCR, culture, and serology for diagnosis of Chlamydia pneumoniae respiratory infections. J Clin Microbiol 1998; 36: 23012307.
  • 6
    Wellinghausen N, Straube E, Freidank H, Von Baum H, Marre R, Essig A. Low prevalence of Chlamydia pneumoniae in adults with community-acquired pneumonia. Int J Med Microbiol 2006; 296: 485491.
  • 7
    Boman J, Allard A, Persson K, Lundborg M, Juto P, Wadell G. Rapid diagnosis of respiratory Chlamydia pneumoniae infection by nested touchdown polymerase chain reaction compared with culture and antigen detection by EIA. J Infect Dis 1997; 175: 15231526.
  • 8
    Thom DH, Grayston JT, Campbell LA, Kuo CC, Diwan VK, Wang SP. Respiratory infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae in middle-aged and older adult outpatients. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 1994; 13: 785792.
  • 9
    Dowell SF, Peeling RW, Boman J et al. Standardizing Chlamydia pneumoniae assays: recommendations from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (USA) and the Laboratory Centre for Disease Control (Canada). Clin Infect Dis 2001; 33: 492503.
  • 10
    Kern DG, Neill MA, Schachter J. A seroepidemiologic study of Chlamydia pneumoniae in Rhode Island. Evidence of serologic cross-reactivity. Chest 1993; 104: 208213.
  • 11
    Persson K, Haidl S. Evaluation of a commercial test for antibodies to the chlamydial lipopolysaccharide (Medac) for serodiagnosis of acute infections by Chlamydia pneumoniae (TWAR) and Chlamydia psittaci. APMIS 2000; 108: 131138.
  • 12
    Peeling RW, Wang SP, Grayston JT et al. Chlamydia pneumoniae serology: interlaboratory variation in microimmunofluorescence assay results. J Infect Dis 2000; 181 (suppl 3): S426S429.
  • 13
    Tuuminen T, Palomaki P, Paavonen J. The use of serologic tests for the diagnosis of chlamydial infections. J Microbiol Methods 2000; 42: 265279.
  • 14
    Grayston JT, Wang SP, Kuo CC, Campbell LA. Current knowledge on Chlamydia pneumoniae, strain TWAR, an important cause of pneumonia and other acute respiratory diseases. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 1989; 8: 191202.
  • 15
    Persson K, Boman J. Comparison of five serologic tests for diagnosis of acute infections by Chlamydia pneumoniae. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 2000; 7: 739744.
  • 16
    Skakni L, Sardet A, Just J et al. Detection of Mycoplasma pneumoniae in clinical samples from pediatric patients by polymerase chain reaction. J Clin Microbiol 1992; 30: 26382643.
  • 17
    Waris ME, Toikka P, Saarinen T et al. Diagnosis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia in children. J Clin Microbiol 1998; 36: 31553159.
  • 18
    Fournier PE, Raoult D. Comparison of PCR and serology assays for early diagnosis of acute Q fever. J Clin Microbiol 2003; 41: 50945098.
  • 19
    Tong CY, Sillis M. Detection of Chlamydia pneumoniae and Chlamydia psittaci in sputum samples by PCR. J Clin Pathol 1993; 46: 313317.
  • 20
    Haaheim H, Vorland L, Gutteberg TJ. Laboratory diagnosis of respiratory diseases: PCR versus serology. Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids 2001; 20: 12551258.
  • 21
    Altman D. Practical statistics for medical research. London: Chapman & Hall, 1991.
  • 22
    Apfalter P, Reischl U, Hammerschlag MR. In-house nucleic acid amplification assays in research: how much quality control is needed before one can rely upon the results? J Clin Microbiol 2005; 43: 58355841.
  • 23
    Principi N, Esposito S, Blasi F, Allegra L. Role of Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae in children with community-acquired lower respiratory tract infections. Clin Infect Dis 2001; 32: 12811289.
  • 24
    Bennedsen M. Chlamydia pneumoniae. Assessment of the microimmunofluorescence test for antibody detection and prevalence studies in adult patients with respiratory tract infection. MD Thesis, Copenhagen: University of Copenhagen, 2003.
  • 25
    Gray GC, Schultz RG, Gackstetter GD et al. Prospective study of respiratory infections at the US Naval Academy. Mil Med 2001; 166: 759763.
  • 26
    Ekman MR, Grayston JT, Visakorpi R, Kleemola M, Kuo CC, Saikku P. An epidemic of infections due to Chlamydia pneumoniae in military conscripts. Clin Infect Dis 1993; 17: 420425.