SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • 1
    Abraham E, Reinhart K, Opal S et al. Efficacy and safety of tifacogin (recombinant tissue factor pathway inhibitor) in severe sepsis: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2003; 290: 238247.
  • 2
    Angus DC, Linde-Zwirble WT, Lidicker J, Clermont G, Carcillo J, Pinsky MR. Epidemiology of severe sepsis in the United States: analysis of incidence, outcome, and associated costs of care. Crit Care Med 2001; 29: 13031310.
  • 3
    Angus DC, Wax RS. Epidemiology of sepsis: an update. Crit Care Med 2001; 29: S109S116.
  • 4
    Warren BL, Eid A, Singer P et al. Caring for the critically ill patient. High-dose antithrombin III in severe sepsis: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2001; 286: 18691878.
  • 5
    Sweeney DA, Danner RL, Eichacker PQ, Natanson C. Once is not enough: clinical trials in sepsis. Intensive Care Med 2008; 34: 19551960.
  • 6
    Eichacker PQ, Parent C, Kalil A et al. Risk and the efficacy of antiinflammatory agents: retrospective and confirmatory studies of sepsis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2002; 166: 11971205.
  • 7
    Minneci PC, Deans KJ, Banks SM, Eichacker PQ, Natanson C. Meta-analysis: the effect of steroids on survival and shock during sepsis depends on the dose. Ann Intern Med 2004; 141: 4756.
  • 8
    Annane D, Sebille V, Charpentier C et al. Effect of treatment with low doses of hydrocortisone and fludrocortisone on mortality in patients with septic shock. JAMA 2002; 288: 862871.
  • 9
    Pogue J, Yusuf S. Overcoming the limitations of current meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Lancet 1998; 351: 4752.
  • 10
    American College of Chest Physicians/Society of Critical Care Medicine Consensus Conference: definitions for sepsis and organ failure and guidelines for the use of innovative therapies in sepsis. Crit Care Med 1992; 20: 864874.
  • 11
    Jadad AR, Moore RA, Carroll D et al. Assessing the quality of reports of randomized clinical trials: is blinding necessary? Control Clin Trials 1996; 17: 112.
  • 12
    Garber EK, Targoff C, Paulus HE. Glucocorticoid preparations. In: PaulusHE, FurstDE, DroomgooleSH, eds. Drugs for rheumatic diseases. New York: Churchill Livingstone, 1987; 446.
  • 13
    Breslow NE, Day NE. The analysis of case–control studies. In: DavisW, ed. Statistical methods in cancer research. Lyon, France: IARC Scientific Publications, 1980.
  • 14
    Higgins JP, Thompson SG, Deeks JJ, Altman DG. Measuring inconsistency in meta-analyses. BMJ 2003; 327: 557560.
  • 15
    Egger M, Davey Smith G, Schneider M, Minder C. Bias in meta-analysis detected by a simple, graphical test. BMJ 1997; 315: 629634.
  • 16
    Gonzales DA, Norsworthy KJ, Kern SJ et al. A meta-analysis of N-acetylcysteine in contrast-induced nephrotoxicity: unsupervised clustering to resolve heterogeneity. BMC Med 2007; 5: 3244.
  • 17
    Cicarelli DD, Vieira JE, Bensenor FE. Early dexamethasone treatment for septic shock patients: a prospective randomized clinical trial. Sao Paulo Med J 2007; 125: 237241.
  • 18
    Confalonieri M, Urbino R, Potena A et al. Hydrocortisone infusion for severe community-acquired pneumonia: a preliminary randomized study. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2005; 171: 242248.
  • 19
    Mussack T, Briegel J, Schelling G, Biberthaler P, Jochum M. Effect of stress doses of hydrocortisone on S-100B vs. interleukin-8 and polymorphonuclear elastase levels in human septic shock. Clin Chem Lab Med 2005; 43: 259268.
  • 20
    Oppert M, Schindler R, Husung C et al. Low-dose hydrocortisone improves shock reversal and reduces cytokine levels in early hyperdynamic septic shock. Crit Care Med 2005; 33: 24572464.
  • 21
    Rinaldi S, Adembri C, Grechi S, De Gaudio AR. Low-dose hydrocortisone during severe sepsis: effects on microalbuminuria. Crit Care Med 2006; 34: 23342339.
  • 22
    Sprung CL, Annane D, Keh D et al. Hydrocortisone therapy for patients with septic shock. N Engl J Med 2008; 358: 111124.
  • 23
    Tandan SM, Guleria R, Gupta N. Low dose steroids and adrenocortical insufficiency in septic shock: a double-blind randomized controlled trial from India. American Thoracic Society Meeting 2005; 2.
  • 24
    Hinshaw L, Peduzzi P, Young E et al . Effect of high-dose glucocorticoid therapy on mortality in patients with clinical signs of systemic sepsis. The Veterans Administration Systemic Sepsis Cooperative Study Group. N Engl J Med 1987; 317: 659665.
  • 25
    Bennett IL, Finland M, Hamburger M, Kass EH, Lepper M, Waisbren BA. The effectiveness of hydrocortisone in the management of severe infection. JAMA 1963; 183: 462465.
  • 26
    Bollaert PE, Charpentier C, Levy B, Debouverie M, Audibert G, Larcan A. Reversal of late septic shock with supraphysiologic doses of hydrocortisone. Crit Care Med 1998; 26: 645650.
  • 27
    Bone RC, Fisher CJ Jr, Clemmer TP, Slotman GJ, Metz CA, Balk RA. A controlled clinical trial of high-dose methylprednisolone in the treatment of severe sepsis and septic shock. N Engl J Med 1987; 317: 653658.
  • 28
    Briegel J, Forst H, Haller M et al. Stress doses of hydrocortisone reverse hyperdynamic septic shock: a prospective, randomized, double-blind, single-center study. Crit Care Med 1999; 27: 723732.
  • 29
    Chawla K, Kupfer Y, Goldman I. Hydrocortisone reverses refractory septic shock. Crit Care Med 1999; 27: A33.
  • 30
    Klastersky J, Cappel R, Debusscher L. Effectiveness of betamethasone in management of severe infections. A double-blind study. N Engl J Med 1971; 284: 12481250.
  • 31
    Lucas CE, Ledgerwood AM. The cardiopulmonary response to massive doses of steroids in patients with septic shock. Arch Surg 1984; 119: 537541.
  • 32
    Luce JM, Montgomery AB, Marks JD, Turner J, Metz CA, Murray JF. Ineffectiveness of high-dose methylprednisolone in preventing parenchymal lung injury and improving mortality in patients with septic shock. Am Rev Respir Dis 1988; 138: 6268.
  • 33
    Schumer W. Steroids in the treatment of clinical septic shock. Ann Surg 1976; 184: 333341.
  • 34
    Sprung CL, Caralis PV, Marcial EH et al. The effects of high-dose corticosteroids in patients with septic shock. A prospective, controlled study. N Engl J Med 1984; 311: 11371143.
  • 35
    Thompson WL, Gurley HT, Lutz BA, Jackson DL, Kyols LK, Morris IA. Inefficacy of glucocorticoids in shock (double-blind study). Clin Res 1976; 24: 258A.
  • 36
    Yildiz O, Doganay M, Aygen B, Guven M, Keleutimur F, Tutuu A. Physiological-dose steroid therapy in sepsis [ISRCTN36253388]. Crit Care 2002; 6: 251259.
  • 37
    Annane D, Bellissant E, Bollaert PE, Briegel J, Keh D, Kupfer Y. Corticosteroids for severe sepsis and septic shock: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ 2004; 329: 480.
  • 38
    Marik PE, Pastores SM, Annane D et al. Recommendations for the diagnosis and management of corticosteroid insufficiency in critically ill adult patients: consensus statements from an international task force by the American College of Critical Care Medicine. Crit Care Med 2008; 36: 19371949.
  • 39
    Eichacker PQ, Natanson C. Recombinant human activated protein C in sepsis: inconsistent trial results, an unclear mechanism of action, and safety concerns resulted in labeling restrictions and the need for phase IV trials. Crit Care Med 2003; 31: S94S96.
  • 40
    Li Y, Cui X, Li X et al. Risk of death does not alter the efficacy of hydrocortisone therapy in a mouse E. coli pneumonia model: risk and corticosteroids in sepsis. Intensive Care Med 2008; 34: 568577.
  • 41
    Collins S, Caron MG, Lefkowitz RJ. Beta-adrenergic receptors in hamster smooth muscle cells are transcriptionally regulated by glucocorticoids. J Biol Chem 1988; 263: 90679070.
  • 42
    Sakaue M, Hoffman BB. Glucocorticoids induce transcription and expression of the alpha 1B adrenergic receptor gene in DTT1 MF-2 smooth muscle cells. J Clin Invest 1991; 88: 385389.
  • 43
    Arafah BM. Hypothalamic pituitary adrenal function during critical illness: limitations of current assessment methods. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2006; 91: 37253745.
  • 44
    Bouachour G, Roy PM, Guiraud MP. The repetitive short corticotropin stimulation test in patients with septic shock. Ann Intern Med 1995; 123: 962963.
  • 45
    Hamrahian AH, Oseni TS, Arafah BM. Measurements of serum free cortisol in critically ill patients. N Engl J Med 2004; 350: 16291638.
  • 46
    Loisa P, Uusaro A, Ruokonen E. A single adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation test does not reveal adrenal insufficiency in septic shock. Anesth Analg 2005; 101: 17921798.
  • 47
    Finfer S. Corticosteroids in septic shock. N Engl J Med 2008; 358: 188190.
  • 48
    Dellinger RP, Carlet JM, Masur H et al. Surviving Sepsis Campaign guidelines for management of severe sepsis and septic shock. Crit Care Med 2004; 32: 858873.