Risk factors for extended-spectrum β-lactamase positivity in uropathogenic Escherichia coli isolated from community-acquired urinary tract infections


Corresponding author and reprint requests:Ö. K. Azap, Baskent University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Disease, Fevzi Çakmak Caddesi 10. sokak No: 45, 06490 Bahcelievler, Ankara, Turkey


Clin Microbiol Infect 2010; 16: 147–151


The aim of this prospective cohort study was to determine the risk factors for community-acquired urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-positive Escherichia coli and the distribution of the ESBL enzyme types. Structured forms were filled in for patients diagnosed with community-acquired UTI in four different geographical locations in Turkey. The forms and the isolates were sent to the central laboratory at Baskent University Hospital, Ankara. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined according to the CLSI criteria. PCR and DNA sequencing were used to characterize the blaTEM, blaCTX-M and blaSHV genes. Multivariate analysis was performed using logistic regression. A total of 510 patients with UTI caused by Gram-negative bacteria were included in this study. ESBLs were detected in 17 of 269 (6.3%) uropathogenic E. coli isolates from uncomplicated UTIs and 34 of 195 (17.4%) E. coli isolates from complicated UTIs (p <0.001). According to multivariate analysis, more than three urinary tract infection episodes in the preceding year (OR 3.8, 95% CI 1.8–8.1, p <0.001), use of a β-lactam antibiotic in the preceding 3 months (OR 4.6, 95% CI 2.0–0.7, p <0.001) and prostatic disease (OR 9.6, 95% CI 2.1–44.8, p 0.004) were found to be associated with ESBL positivity. The percentages of isolates with simultaneous resistance to trimethoprim–sulphamethoxazole, ciprofloxacin and gentamicin were found to be 4.6% in the ESBL-negative group and 39.2% in the ESBL-positive group (p <0.001). Forty-six of 51 ESBL-positive isolates (90.2%) were found to harbour CTX-M-15. Therapeutic alternatives for UTI, particularly in outpatients, are limited. Further clinical studies are needed to guide the clinicians in the management of community-acquired UTIs.