• 1
    te Beek LAM, van der Werf MJ, Richter C, Borgdorff MW. Extrapulmonary tuberculosis by nationality, The Netherlands, 1993–2001. Emerging Infect Dis 2006; 12: 13751382.
  • 2
    de Jong BC, Hill PC, Aiken A et al. Progression to active tuberculosis, but not transmission, varies by Mycobacterium tuberculosis lineage in The Gambia. J Infect Dis 2008; 198: 10371043.
  • 3
    Caws M, Thwaites G, Stepniewska K et al. Beijing genotype of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is significantly associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection and multidrug resistance in cases of tuberculous meningitis. J Clin Microbiol 2006; 44: 39343939.
  • 4
    Caws M, Thwaites G, Dunstan S et al. The influence of host and bacterial genotype on the development of disseminated disease with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. PLoS Pathog 2008; 4: e1000034.
  • 5
    Lari N, Rindi L, Cristofani R, Rastogi N, Tortoli E, Garzelli C. Association of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates of BOVIS and Central Asian (CAS) genotypic lineages with extrapulmonary disease. Clin Microbiol Infect 2009; 15: 538543.
  • 6
    Romanus V The Swedish Tuberculosis Index 2001 and 2002. Stockholm: Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control and the Swedish Heart Lung Foundation; 2004.
  • 7
    Brudey K, Gordon M, Moström P et al. Molecular epidemiology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in western Sweden. J Clin Microbiol 2004; 42: 30463051.
  • 8
    Filliol I, Driscoll JR, van Soolingen D et al. Snapshot of moving and expanding clones of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and their global distribution assessed by spoligotyping in an international study. J Clin Microbiol 2003; 41: 19631970.
  • 9
    Kamerbeek J, Schouls L, Kolk A et al. Simultaneous detection and strain differentiation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis for diagnosis and epidemiology. J Clin Microbiol 1997; 35: 907914.
  • 10
    Brudey K, Driscoll JR, Rigouts L et al. Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex genetic diversity: mining the fourth international spoligotyping database (SpolDB4) for classification, population genetics and epidemiology. BMC Microbiol 2006; 6: 23.
  • 11
    Rastogi N, Sola C Molecular Evolution [Internet]. In: Tuberculosis 2007. [cited 2010 Mar 17]. Available from:
  • 12
    Sreevatsan S, Pan X, Stockbauer KE et al. Restricted structural gene polymorphism in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex indicates evolutionarily recent global dissemination. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1997; 94: 98699874.
  • 13
    Brosch R, Gordon SV, Marmiesse M et al. A new evolutionary scenario for the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2002; 99: 36843689.
  • 14
    Soini H, Pan X, Amin A, Graviss EA, Siddiqui A, Musser JM. Characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from patients in Houston, Texas, by spoligotyping. J Clin Microbiol 2000; 38: 669676.
  • 15
    Ghebremichael S, Petersson R, Koivula T et al. Molecular epidemiology of drug-resistant tuberculosis in Sweden. Microbes Infect 2008; 10: 699705.
  • 16
    Farah MG, Tverdal A, Selmer R, Heldal E, Bjune G. Tuberculosis in Norway by country of birth, 1986–1999. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2003; 7: 232235.
  • 17
    Forssbohm M, Zwahlen M, Loddenkemper R, Rieder HL. Demographic characteristics of patients with extrapulmonary tuberculosis in Germany. Eur Respir J 2008; 31: 99105.
  • 18
    Gilbert RL, Antoine D, French CE, Abubakar I, Watson JM, Jones JA. The impact of immigration on tuberculosis rates in the United Kingdom compared with other European countries. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2009; 13: 645651.
  • 19
    Neyrolles O, Quintana-Murci L. Sexual inequality in tuberculosis. PLoS Med 2009; 6: e1000199.
  • 20
    Peto HM, Pratt RH, Harrington TA, LoBue PA, Armstrong LR. Epidemiology of extrapulmonary tuberculosis in the United States, 1993–2006. Clin Infect Dis 2009; 49: 13501357.