Risk factors and mortality of healthcare-associated and community-acquired Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia


Corresponding author and reprint requests: M. Bassetti, Clinica Malattie Infettive, A.O.U. San Martino, L.go R.Benzi 10, 16132 Genoa, Italy
E-mail: matteo.bassetti@hsanmartino.it


Clin Microbiol Infect 2012; 18: 862–869


Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia (SAB) is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in both nosocomial and community settings. The objective of the study is to explore epidemiological characteristics and predisposing risk factors associated with healthcare-associated (HCA) and community-acquired (CA) SAB, and to evaluate any differences in mortality and efficacy of initial antimicrobial therapy on treatment outcome. We conducted a two-part analysis. First, a triple case–control study in which groups of HCA SAB with onset ≥48 h after hospital admission (HCA ≥48 h), HCA SAB with onset <48 h of hospital admission (HCA <48 h), and CA SAB were compared with controls. Second, a cohort study including all patients with SAB was performed to identify factors associated with in-hospital mortality. SAB was diagnosed in 165 patients over the study period (January 2007 to December 2007). Five variables were independently associated with HCA ≥48 h SAB: presence of central venous catheter, solid tumour, chronic renal failure, previous hospitalization and previous antibiotic therapy. Significant risk factors for HCA <48 h SAB were: Charlson Comorbidity Index ≥3, previous hospitalization, living in long-term care facilities and corticosteroid therapy. Factors independently associated with CA SAB were: diabetes mellitus, HIV infection and chronic live disease. Patients with HCA <48 h SAB were significantly more likely to receive initial inadequate antimicrobial treatment than patients with CA or HCA ≥48 h SAB (44.8% versus 33.3% and 31.5%, respectively). Logistic-regression analysis identified three variables as independent predictors of mortality: presentation with septic shock, infection with methicillin-resistant S. aureus, and initial inadequate antimicrobial treatment. More than half of patients with SAB have MRSA strains and presentation with septic shock, and inappropriate empirical therapy was associated with increased mortality.