• 1
    Woodhead M, Blasi F, Ewig S et al. Guidelines for the management of adult lower respiratory tract infections. Eur Respir J 2005; 26: 11381180.
  • 2
    Tanz RR, Shulman ST. Chronic pharyngeal carriage of group A streptococci. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2007; 26: 175176.
  • 3
    Hoffmann S. The throat carrier rate of group A and other β hemolytic streptococci among patients in general practice. Acta Pathol Microbiol Immunol Scand B 1985; 93: 347351.
  • 4
    Stromberg A, Schwan A, Cars O. Throat carrier rates of β-hemolytic streptococci among healthy adults and children. Scand J Infect Dis 1988; 20: 411417.
  • 5
    Begovac J, Bobinac E, Benic B et al. Asymptomatic pharyngeal carriage of β-haemolytic streptococci and streptococcal pharyngitis among patients at an urban hospital in Croatia. Eur J Epidemiol 1993; 9: 405410.
  • 6
    Ozturk CE, Yavuz T, Kaya D, Yucel M. The rate of asymptomatic throat carriage of group A streptococcus in school children and associated ASO titers in Duzce, Turkey. Jpn J Infect Dis 2004; 57: 271272.
  • 7
    Gerber MA, Baltimore RS, Eaton CB et al. Prevention of rheumatic fever and diagnosis and treatment of acute streptococcal pharyngitis: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association rheumatic fever, endocarditis, and Kawasaki disease Committee of the Council on cardiovascular disease in the young, the Interdisciplinary Council on functional genomics and translational biology, and the Interdisciplinary Council on quality of care and outcomes research: endorsed by the American Academy of Pediatrics. Circulation 2009; 119: 15411551.
  • 8
    Talmon Y, Gilbey P, Fridman N, Wishniak A, Roguin N. Acute myopericarditis complicating acute tonsillitis: beware the young male patient with tonsillitis complaining of chest pain. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 2008; 117: 295297.
  • 9
    Galioto NJ. Peritonsillar abscess. Am Fam Physician 2008; 77: 199202.
  • 10
    Abdel-Haq NM, Harahsheh A, Asmar BL. Retropharyngeal abscess in children: the emerging role of group A β hemolytic streptococcus. South Med J 2006; 99: 927931.
  • 11
    Martin JM, Green M. Group A streptococcus. Semin Pediatr Infect Dis 2006; 17: 140148.
  • 12
    Almroth G, Lindell A, Aselius H et al. Acute glomerulonephritis associated with Streptococcus pyogenes with concomitant spread of Streptococcus constellatus in four rural families. Ups J Med Sci 2005; 110: 217231.
  • 13
    Gerber MA. Diagnosis and treatment of pharyngitis in children. Pediatr Clin North Am 2005; 52: 729747.
  • 14
    Hanna BC, McMullan R, Gallagher G, Hedderwick S. The epidemiology of peritonsillar abscess disease in Northern Ireland. J Infect 2006; 52: 247253.
  • 15
    Steer AC, Danchin MH, Carapetis JR. Group A streptococcal infections in children. J Paediatr Child Health 2007; 43: 203213.
  • 16
    Watson N, Nimmo WS, Christian J, Charlesworth A, Speight J, Miller K. Relief of sore throat with the anti-inflammatory throat lozenge flurbiprofen 8.75 mg: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of efficacy and safety. Int J Clin Pract 2000; 54: 490496.
  • 17
    Dunn N, Lane D, Everitt H, Little P. Use of antibiotics for sore throat and incidence of quinsy. Br J Gen Pract 2007; 57: 4549.
  • 18
    Fretzayas A, Moustaki M, Kitsiou S, Nychtari G, Nicolaidou P. The clinical pattern of group C streptococcal pharyngitis in children. J Infect Chemother 2009; 15: 228232.
  • 19
    Lindbaek M, Hoiby EA, Lermark G, Steinsholt IM, Hjortdahl P. Clinical symptoms and signs in sore throat patients with large colony variant β-haemolytic streptococci groups C or G versus group A. Br J Gen Pract 2005; 55: 615619.
  • 20
    Zwart S, Ruijs GJ, Sachs AP, van Leeuwen WJ, Gubbels JW, de Melker RA. Beta-haemolytic streptococci isolated from acute sore-throat patients: cause or coincidence? A case–control study in general practice. Scand J Infect Dis 2000; 32: 377384.
  • 21
    Dagnelie CF, Touw-Otten FW, Kuyvenhoven MM, Rozenberg-Arska M, de Melker RA. Bacterial flora in patients presenting with sore throat in Dutch general practice. Fam Pract 1993; 10: 371377.
  • 22
    Turner JC, Fox A, Fox K et al. Role of group C β-hemolytic streptococci in pharyngitis: epidemiologic study of clinical features associated with isolation of group C streptococci. J Clin Microbiol 1993; 31: 808811.
  • 23
    Gerber MA, Randolph MF, Martin NJ et al. Community-wide outbreak of group G streptococcal pharyngitis. Pediatrics 1991; 87: 598603.
  • 24
    Meier FA, Centor RM, Graham L Jr, Dalton HP. Clinical and microbiological evidence for endemic pharyngitis among adults due to group C streptococci. Arch Intern Med 1990; 150: 825829.
  • 25
    Corson AP, Garagusi VF, Chretien JH. Group C β-hemolytic streptococci causing pharyngitis and scarlet fever. South Med J 1989; 82: 11191121.
  • 26
    Shah M, Centor RM, Jennings M. Severe acute pharyngitis caused by group C streptococcus. J Gen Intern Med 2007; 22: 272274.
  • 27
    Turner JC, Hayden FG, Lobo MC, Ramirez CE, Murren D. Epidemiologic evidence for Lancefield group C β-hemolytic streptococci as a cause of exudative pharyngitis in college students. J Clin Microbiol 1997; 35: 14.
  • 28
    Dudley JP, Sercarz J. Pharyngeal and tonsil infections caused by non-group A streptococcus. Am J Otolaryngol 1991; 12: 292296.
  • 29
    Turner JC, Hayden GF, Kiselica D, Lohr J, Fishburne CF, Murren D. Association of group C β-hemolytic streptococci with endemic pharyngitis among college students. JAMA 1990; 264: 26442647.
  • 30
    Morgan MC, Rice LI. Recurrent group C streptococcal tonsillopharyngitis in an adolescent. J Adolesc Health Care. 1989; 10: 421422.
  • 31
    Fulginiti VA, Ey JL, Ryan KJ. Recurrent group C streptococcal tonsillitis in an adolescent male requiring tonsillectomy. Clin Pediatr (Philad) 1980; 19: 829830.
  • 32
    Jansen TL, Janssen M, de Jong AJ. Reactive arthritis associated with group C and group G β-hemolytic streptococci. J Rheumatol 1998; 25: 11261130.
  • 33
    Young L, Deighton CM, Chuck AJ, Galloway A. Reactive arthritis and group G streptococcal pharyngitis. Ann Rheum Dis 1992; 51: 1268.
  • 34
    Natoli S, Fimiani C, Faglieri N et al. Toxic shock syndrome due to group C streptococci. A case report. Intensive Care Med 1996; 22: 985989.
  • 35
    Gettler JF, el-Sadr W. Group C streptococcal subdural empyema in a healthy man: possible complication of pharyngitis. Clin Infect Dis 1993; 16: 726727.
  • 36
    Efstratiou A. Pyogenic streptococci of Lancefield groups C and G as pathogens in man. Soc Appl Bacteriol Symp Ser 1997; 26: 72S79S.
  • 37
    Gerber MA, Shulman ST. Rapid diagnosis of pharyngitis caused by group A streptococci. Clin Microbiol Rev 2004; 17: 571580.
  • 38
    Haidan A, Talay SR, Rohde M, Sriprakash KS, Currie BJ, Chhatwal GS. Pharyngeal carriage of group C and group G streptococci and acute rheumatic fever in an aboriginal population. Lancet 2000; 356: 11671169.
  • 39
    McDonald M, Currie BJ, Carapetis JR. Acute rheumatic fever: a chink in the chain that links the heart to the throat? Lancet Infect Dis 2004; 4: 240245.
  • 40
    Esposito S, Bosis S, Begliatti E et al. Acute tonsillopharyngitis associated with atypical bacterial infection in children: natural history and impact of macrolide therapy. Clin Infect Dis 2006; 43: 206209.
  • 41
    Esposito S, Blasi F, Bosis S et al. Aetiology of acute pharyngitis: the role of atypical bacteria. J Med Microbiol 2004; 53: 645651.
  • 42
    Levy M, Shear NH. Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections and Stevens–Johnson syndrome. Report of eight cases and review of the literature. Clin Pediatr (Philad) 1991; 30: 4249.
  • 43
    Klar A, Gross-Kieselstein E, Hurvitz H, Branski D. Bilateral Bell’s palsy due to Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection. Isr J Med Sci 1985; 21: 692694.
  • 44
    Volter C, Helms J, Weissbrich B, Rieckmann P, Abele-Horn M. Frequent detection of Mycoplasma pneumoniae in Bell’s palsy. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2004; 261: 400404.
  • 45
    Centor RM, Witherspoon JM, Dalton HP, Brody CE, Link K. The diagnosis of strep throat in adults in the emergency room. Med Decis Making 1981; 1: 239246.
  • 46
    McIsaac WJ, White D, Tannenbaum D, Low DE. A clinical score to reduce unnecessary antibiotic use in patients with sore throat. Can Med Assoc J 1998; 158: 7583.
  • 47
    McIsaac WJ, Kellner JD, Aufricht P, Vanjaka A, Low DE. Empirical validation of guidelines for the management of pharyngitis in children and adults. JAMA 2004; 291: 15871595.
  • 48
    Kocoglu E, Karabay O, Yilmaz F, Ekerbicer H. The impact of incubating the throat culture for 72 h on the diagnosis of group A β-hemolytic streptococci. Auris Nasus Larynx 2006; 33: 311313.
  • 49
    Shulman ST. Acute streptococcal pharyngitis in pediatric medicine: current issues in diagnosis and management. Paediatr Drugs 2003; 5 (Suppl 1): 1323.
  • 50
    Gieseker KE, MacKenzie T, Roe MH, Todd JK. Comparison of two rapid Streptococcus pyogenes diagnostic tests with a rigorous culture standard. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2002; 21: 922.
  • 51
    Lindbaek M, Hoiby EA, Lermark G, Steinsholt IM, Hjortdahl P. Which is the best method to trace group A streptococci in sore throat patients: culture or GAS antigen test? Scand J Prim Health Care 2004; 22: 233238.
  • 52
    Forward KR, Haldane D, Webster D, Mills C, Brine C, Aylward D. A comparison between the strep A rapid test device and conventional culture for the diagnosis of streptococcal pharyngitis. Can J Infect Dis Med Microbiol 2006; 17: 221.
  • 53
    Chapin KC, Blake P, Wilson CD. Performance characteristics and utilization of rapid antigen test. DNA probe, and culture for detection of group A streptococci in an acute care clinic. J Clin Microbiol 2002; 40: 42074210.
  • 54
    Humair JP, Revaz SA, Bovier P, Stalder H. Management of acute pharyngitis in adults: reliability of rapid streptococcal tests and clinical findings. Arch Intern Med 2006; 166: 640644.
  • 55
    Tanz RR, Gerber MA, Kabat W, Rippe J, Seshadri R, Shulman ST. Performance of a rapid antigen-detection test and throat culture in community pediatric offices: implications for management of pharyngitis. Pediatrics 2009; 123: 437.
  • 56
    Nerbrand C, Jasir A, Schalen C. Are current rapid detection tests for group A streptococci sensitive enough? Evaluation of 2 commercial kits. Scand J Infect Dis 2002; 34: 797799.
  • 57
    Camurdan AD, Camurdan OM, Ok I, Sahin F, Ilhan MN, Beyazova U. Diagnostic value of rapid antigen detection test for streptococcal pharyngitis in a pediatric population. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2008; 72: 12031206.
  • 58
    Johansson L, Mansson NO. Rapid test, throat culture and clinical assessment in the diagnosis of tonsillitis. Fam Pract 2003; 20: 108111.
  • 59
    Bisno AL, Peter GS, Kaplan EL. Diagnosis of strep throat in adults: are clinical criteria really good enough? Clin Infect Dis 2002; 35: 126129.
  • 60
    Fox JW, Cohen DM, Marcon MJ, Cotton WH, Bonsu BK. Performance of rapid streptococcal antigen testing varies by personnel. J Clin Microbiol 2006; 44: 39183922.
  • 61
    Fox JW, Marcon MJ, Bonsu BK. Diagnosis of streptococcal pharyngitis by detection of Streptococcus pyogenes in posterior pharyngeal versus oral cavity specimens. J Clin Microbiol 2006; 44: 25932594.
  • 62
    van der Veen EL, Sanders EAM, Videler WJM, van Staaij BK, van Benthem PPG, Schilder AGM. Optimal site for throat culture: tonsillar surface versus posterior pharyngeal wall. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2006; 263: 750753.
  • 63
    Dagnelie CF, Bartelink ML, van der Graaf Y, Goessens W, de Melker RA. Towards a better diagnosis of throat infections (with group A β-haemolytic streptococcus) in general practice. Br J Gen Pract 1998; 48: 959962.
  • 64
    Maltezou HC, Tsagris V, Antoniadou A et al. Evaluation of a rapid antigen detection test in the diagnosis of streptococcal pharyngitis in children and its impact on antibiotic prescription. J Antimicrob Chemother 2008; 62: 14071412.
  • 65
    Van Limbergen J, Kalima P, Taheri S, Beattie TF. Streptococcus A in paediatric accident and emergency: are rapid streptococcal tests and clinical examination of any help? Emerg Med J 2006; 23: 3234.
  • 66
    Edmonson MB, Farwell KR. Relationship between the clinical likelihood of group A streptococcal pharyngitis and the sensitivity of a rapid antigen-detection test in a pediatric practice. Pediatrics 2005; 115: 280285.
  • 67
    Hall MC, Kieke B, Gonzales R, Belongia EA. Spectrum bias of a rapid antigen detection test for group A β-hemolytic streptococcal pharyngitis in a pediatric population. Pediatrics 2004; 114: 182186.
  • 68
    Armengol CE, Schlager TA, Hendley JO. Sensitivity of a rapid antigen detection test for group A streptococci in a private pediatric office setting: answering the Red Book’s request for validation. Am Acad Pediatrics 2004; 113: 924926.
  • 69
    Cohen R, Levy C, Ovetchkine P et al. Evaluation of streptococcal clinical scores, rapid antigen detection tests and cultures for childhood pharyngitis. Eur J Pediatr 2004; 163: 281282.
  • 70
    Choby BA. Diagnosis and treatment of streptococcal pharyngitis. Am Fam Physician 2009; 79: 383.
  • 71
    Atlas SJ, McDermott SM, Mannone C, Barry MJ. Brief report: the role of point of care testing for patients with acute pharyngitis. J Gen Intern Med 2005; 20: 759761.
  • 72
    Holm A, Pedersen SS, Nexoe J et al. Procalcitonin versus C-reactive protein for predicting pneumonia in adults with lower respiratory tract infection in primary care. Br J Gen Pract 2007; 57: 555560.
  • 73
    van der Meer V, Neven AK, Van Den Broek PJ, Assendelft WJ. Diagnostic value of C reactive protein in infections of the lower respiratory tract: systematic review. BMJ 2005; 331: 2631.
  • 74
    Matthys J, De Meyere M, van Driel ML, De Sutter A. Differences among international pharyngitis guidelines: not just academic. Ann Fam Med 2007; 5: 436443.
  • 75
    Hahn RG, Knox LM, Forman TA. Evaluation of poststreptococcal illness. Am Fam Physician 2005; 71: 19491954.
  • 76
    Worrall G, Hutchinson J, Sherman G, Griffiths J. Diagnosing streptococcal sore throat in adults: randomized controlled trial of in-office aids. Can Fam Physician 2007; 53: 666.
  • 77
    Linder JA, Chan JC, Bates DW. Evaluation and treatment of pharyngitis in primary care practice: the difference between guidelines is largely academic. Arch Intern Med 2006; 166: 13741379.
  • 78
    McIsaac WJ, Goel V, To T, Permaul JA, Low DE. Effect on antibiotic prescribing of repeated clinical prompts to use a sore throat score: lessons from a failed community intervention study. J Fam Pract 2002; 51: 339344.
  • 79
    Rosenberg P, McIsaac W, MacIntosh D, Kroll M. Diagnosing streptococcal pharyngitis in the emergency department: is a sore throat score approach better than rapid streptococcal antigen testing. CJEM 2002; 4: 178184.
  • 80
    Thomas M, Del MC, Glasziou P. How effective are treatments other than antibiotics for acute sore throat? Br J Gen Pract 2000; 50: 817820.
  • 81
    Benrimoj SI, Langford JH, Christian J, Charlesworth A, Steans A. Efficacy and tolerability of the anti-inflammatory throat lozenge flurbiprofen 8.75 mg in the treatment of sore throat a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Clin Drug Investig 2001; 21: 183193.
  • 82
    Burnett I, Schachtel B, Sanner K, Bey M, Grattan T, Littlejohn S. Onset of analgesia of a paracetamol tablet containing sodium bicarbonate: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study in adult patients with acute sore throat. Clin Ther 2006; 28: 12731278.
  • 83
    Eccles R, Loose I, Jawad M, Nyman L. Effects of acetylsalicylic acid on sore throat pain and other pain symptoms associated with acute upper respiratory tract infection. Pain Med 2003; 4: 118124.
  • 84
    Gehanno P, Dreiser RL, Ionescu E, Gold M, Liu JM. Lowest effective single dose of diclofenac for antipyretic and analgesic effects in acute febrile sore throat. Clin Drug Investig 2003; 23: 263271.
  • 85
    Schachtel BP, Homan HD, Gibb IA, Christian J. Demonstration of dose response of flurbiprofen lozenges with the sore throat pain model. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2002; 71: 375380.
  • 86
    Boureau F, Pelen F, Verriere F et al. Evaluation of ibuprofen vs paracetamol analgesic activity using a sore throat pain model. Clin Drug Investig 1999; 17: 18.
  • 87
    Timmer A, Gunther J, Rucker G, Motschall E, Antes G, Kern WV. Pelargonium sidoides extract for acute respiratory tract infections. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2008; (3): CD006323.
  • 88
    Shi Y, Gu R, Liu C, Ni J, Wu T. Chinese medicinal herbs for sore throat. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2007; (3): CD004877.
  • 89
    Brinckmann J, Sigwart H, van Houten TL. Safety and efficacy of a traditional herbal medicine (throat coat) in symptomatic temporary relief of pain in patients with acute pharyngitis: a multicenter, prospective, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study. J Altern Complement Med 2003; 9: 285298.
  • 90
    Gunsberger M. Acupuncture in the treatment of sore throat symptomatology. Am J Chin Med (GardCity NY) 1973; 1: 337340.
  • 91
    Hubbert M, Sievers H, Lehnfeld R, Kehrl W. Efficacy and tolerability of a spray with Salvia officinalis in the treatment of acute pharyngitis—a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study with adaptive design and interim analysis. Eur J Med Res 2006; 11: 2026.
  • 92
    Rau E. Treatment of acute tonsillitis with a fixed-combination herbal preparation. Adv Ther 2000; 17: 197203.
  • 93
    Wiesenauer M. Comparison of solid and liquid forms of homeopathic remedies for tonsillitis. Adv Ther 1998; 15: 362371.
  • 94
    Moore N, Charlesworth A, van GE et al. Risk factors for adverse events in analgesic drug users: results from the pain study. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 2003; 12: 601610.
  • 95
    Moore N, Le Parc JM, van GE, Wall R, Schneid H, Cairns R. Tolerability of ibuprofen, aspirin and paracetamol for the treatment of cold and flu symptoms and sore throat pain. Int J Clin Pract 2002; 56: 732734.
  • 96
    Perrott DA, Piira T, Goodenough B, Champion GD. Efficacy and safety of acetaminophen vs ibuprofen for treating children’s pain or fever: a meta-analysis. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2004; 158: 521526.
  • 97
    Hayward G, Thompson M, Heneghan C, Perera R, Del MC, Glasziou P. Corticosteroids for pain relief in sore throat: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ 2009; 339: b2976.
  • 98
    Mossad SB, Macknin ML, Medendorp SV, Mason P. Zinc gluconate lozenges for treating the common cold. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Ann Intern Med 1996; 125: 8188.
  • 99
    Macknin ML, Piedmonte M, Calendine C, Janosky J, Wald E. Zinc gluconate lozenges for treating the common cold in children: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 1998; 279: 19621967.
  • 100
    Del Mar CB, Glasziou PP, Spinks A. Antibiotics for sore throat. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2006; (4): CD000023.
  • 101
    Cooper RJ, Hoffman JR, Bartlett JG et al. Principles of appropriate antibiotic use for acute pharyngitis in adults: background. Ann Emerg Med 2001; 37: 711719.
  • 102
    Spurling GK, Del Mar CB, Dooley L, Foxlee R. Delayed antibiotics for respiratory infections. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2007; (3): CD004417.
  • 103
    Altamimi S, Khalil A, Khalaiwi KA, Milner R, Pusic MV, Al Othman MA. Short versus standard duration antibiotic therapy for acute streptococcal pharyngitis in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2009; (1): CD004872.
  • 104
    Casey JR, Pichichero ME. Meta-analysis of cephalosporins versus penicillin for treatment of group A streptococcal tonsillopharyngitis in adults. Clin Infect Dis 2004; 38: 15261534.
  • 105
    Casey JR, Pichichero ME. Meta-analysis of cephalosporin versus penicillin treatment of group A streptococcal tonsillopharyngitis in children. Pediatrics 2004; 113: 866882.
  • 106
    Casey JR, Pichichero ME. Metaanalysis of short course antibiotic treatment for group A streptococcal tonsillopharyngitis. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2005; 24: 909917.
  • 107
    Ioannidis JP, Contopoulos-Ioannidis DG, Chew P, Lau J. Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials on the comparative efficacy and safety of azithromycin against other antibiotics for upper respiratory tract infections. J Antimicrob Chemother 2001; 48: 677689.
  • 108
    Esposito S, Marchisio P, Bosis S, Droghetti R, Mattina R, Principi N. Comparative efficacy and safety of 5-day cefaclor and 10-day amoxycillin treatment of group A streptococcal pharyngitis in children. Int J Antimicrob Agents 2002; 20: 2833.
  • 109
    Sakata H. Comparative study of 5-day cefcapene-pivoxil and 10-day amoxicillin or cefcapene-pivoxil for treatment of group A streptococcal pharyngitis in children. J Infect Chemother 2008; 14: 208212.
  • 110
    Pichichero ME, Casey JR, Block SL et al. Pharmacodynamic analysis and clinical trial of amoxicillin sprinkle administered once daily for 7 days compared to penicillin V potassium administered four times daily for 10 days in the treatment of tonsillopharyngitis due to Streptococcus pyogenes in children. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2008; 52: 25122520.
  • 111
    Gerber MA, Randolph MF, Chanatry J, Wright LL, De MK, Kaplan EL. Five vs ten days of penicillin v therapy for streptococcal pharyngitis. Am J Dis Child 1987; 141: 224227.
  • 112
    Schwartz RH, Wientzen RL Jr, Pedreira F, Feroli EJ, Mella GW, Guandolo VL. Penicillin v for group A streptococcal pharyngotonsillitis. A randomized trial of seven vs ten days’ therapy. JAMA 1981; 246: 17901795.
  • 113
    Zwart S, Sachs AP, Ruijs GJ, Gubbels JW, Hoes AW, de Melker RA. Penicillin for acute sore throat: randomised double blind trial of seven days versus three days treatment or placebo in adults. BMJ 2000; 320: 150154.
  • 114
    Little P, Gould C, Williamson I, Warner G, Gantley M, Kinmonth AL. Reattendance and complications in a randomised trial of prescribing strategies for sore throat: the medicalising effect of prescribing antibiotics. BMJ 1997; 315: 350352.
  • 115
    Singh M, Das RR. Zinc for the common cold. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2011, (2): CD001364. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD001364.pub3.
  • 116
    Zwart S, Rovers MM, de Melker RA, Hoes AW. Penicillin for acute sore throat in children: randomised, double blind trial. Br Med J 2003; 327: 1324.
  • 117
    Kaplan EL, Johnson DR, Del Rosario MC, Horn DL. Susceptibility of group A β-hemolytic streptococci to thirteen antibiotics: examination of 301 strains isolated in the United States between 1994 and 1997. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1999; 18: 10691072.
  • 118
    Shulman ST, Gerber MA. So what’s wrong with penicillin for strep throat? Pediatrics 2004; 113: 18161819.
  • 119
    Bisno AL. Are cephalosporins superior to penicillin for treatment of acute streptococcal pharyngitis? Clin Infect Dis 2004; 38: 15351537.