SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

REFERENCES

  • Bascompte, J. & Solé, R. V. (1995). Appropriate formulations for dispersal in spatially structured models: a reply. J. Anim. Ecol. 64: 665666.
  • Bascompte, J. & Solé, R. V. (1996). Habitat fragmentation and extinction thresholds in spatially explicit models. J. Anim. Ecol. 65: 465473.
  • Bonnell, M. & Selander, R. (1974). Elephant seals: genetic variation and near extinction. Science 184: 90809.
  • Bowers, M. A. (1994). Dynamics of age- and habitat-structured populations. Oikos 69: 327333.
  • Burgman, M. A., Ferson, S. & Akçakaya, H. R. (1993). Risk assessment in conservation biology. London : Chapman & Hall.
  • Burkey, T. V. (1995). Extinction rates in archipelagoes: implications for populations in fragmented habitats. Conserv. Biol. 9: 527541.
  • Caswell, H. (1989). Matrix population models. Sunderland : Sinauer.
  • De Jong, W. W. (1982). Eye lens proteins and vertebrate phylogeny. In Macromolecular sequences in systemic and evolutionary biology: 75114. Goodman, M. (Ed.). New York : Plenum.
  • Falconer, D. S. & Mackay, T. F. C. (1996). Introduction to quantitative genetics. (4th edn). Harlow : Longman.
  • Forney, K. A. & Gilpin, M. E. (1989). Spatial structure and population extinction: a study with Drosophila flies. Conserv. Biol. 3: 4551.
  • Gilpin, M. E. (1987). Spatial structure and population vulnerability. In Viable populations for conservation: 12539. Soulé, M. E. (Ed.). Cambridge : Cambridge University Press.
  • Gilpin, M. E. (1992). Demographic stochasticity: a Markovian approach. J. theor. Biol. 154: 18.
  • Hanski, I. (1989). Metapopulation dynamics: Does it help to have more of the same Trends Ecol. Evol. 4: 113114.
  • Hanski, I. & Gilpin, M., (Ed.) (1996). Metapopulation biology. San Diego : Academic Press.
  • Hanski, I. & Zhang, D.-Y. (1993). Migration, metapopulation dynamics and fugitive co-existence. J. theor. Biol. 163: 491504.
  • Hassell, M. P., Miramontes, O., Rohani, P. & May, R. M. (1995). Appropriate formulations for dispersal in spatially structured models: comments on Bascompte & Solé. J. Anim. Ecol. 66: 662664.
  • Harris, T. E. (1963). The theory of branching processes. Berlin : Springer-Verlag.
  • Hyvärinen, H. & Sipilä, T. (1984). Heavy metals and high pup mortality in the Saimaa ringed seal population in eastern Finland. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 15: 33537.
  • IUCN (1993). Status survey and conservation action plan. Seals, sea lions, walrus. The World Conservation Union, Species Survival Commission, Seal Specialist Group (Eds.) Reijnders, P., Brasseur, S., van derToorn, J., van derWolf, P., Boyd, I., Harwood, J., Lavigne, D. & Lowry, L. L. IUCN Gland .
  • Järvinen, O. & Varvio, S.-L. (1985). Proneness to extinction of small populations of seals: demographic and genetic stochasticity vs. environmental stress. Finnish Game Res. 44: 68.
  • Jetschke, G. (1992). Stochastic population models and their relevance for the conservation of species. Ecol. Model. 63: 7189.
  • Kokko, H. & Ebenhard, T. (1996). Measuring the strength of demographic stochasticity. J. theor. Biol. 183: 16978.
  • Kokko, H., Lindstrom, J. & Ranta, E. (1997). Risk analysis of hunting of seal populations in the Baltic. Conserv. Biol. 11: 91727.
  • Lacy, R. C. & Lindenmayer, D. B. (1995). A simulation study of the impacts of population subdivision on the mountain brush-tail possum Trichosurus caninus ogilby (Phalangeridae: Marsu-pialia) in south-eastern Australia. II. Loss of genetic variation within and between subpopulations. Biol. Conserv. 73: 131142.
  • Lande, R. (1987). Extinction thresholds in demographic models of territorial populations. Am. Nat. 130: 62435.
  • Lande, R. (1988). Genetics and demography in biological conservation. Science 241: 1455460.
  • Lindenmayer, D. B. & Lacy, R. C. (1995). A simulation study of the impacts of population subdivision on the mountain brushtail possum Trichosurus caninus ogilby (Phalangeridae: Marsupialia) in south-eastern Australia. I. Demographic stability and population persistence. Biol. Conserv. 73: 119129.
  • McCarthy, M. A., Franklin, D. C. & Burgman, M. A. (1994). The importance of demographic uncertainty: an example from the helmeted honeyeater Lichenostomus melanops cassidix. Biol. Conserv. 67: 135142.
  • Quinn, J. F. & Hastings, A. (1987). Extinction in subdivided habitats. Conserv. Biol. 1: 198209.
  • Ranta, E., Lindstrom, J. & Kokko, H. (1996). Ecological risk analysis: the case of the Saimaa ringed seal. Ambio 25: 36365.
  • Remmert, H., (Ed.) (1994). Minimum animal populations. Berlin : Springer-Verlag.
  • Riedman, M. (1990). The pinnipeds: seals, sea lions, and walruses. Berkeley : University of California Press.
  • Shaffer, M. (1981). Minimum population sizes for species conservation. Bioscience 31: 13134.
  • Simonsen, V., Allendorf, F. W., Eanes, W. F. & Kapel, F. O. (1982). Electrophoretic variation in large mammals. III. The ringed seal, Pusa hispida, the harp seal, Pagophilus groenlandicus, and the hooded seal, Cystophora cristata. Hereditas 97: 8790.
  • Sipilä, T. (1991). Saimaanhyljealueiden suojelutavoitteet. Maailman Luonnon Säätiön WWF Suomen Rahaston Raportteja No. 5. Helsinki : WWF. (In Finnish).
  • Sipilã, T., Helle, E. & Hyvälrinen, H. (1990). Distribution, population size and reproductivity of the Saimaa ringed seal (Phoca hispida saimensis Nordq.) in Finland, 1980-84. Finnish Game Res. 47: 310.
  • Sipilä, T., Koskela, J. T., Hyvärinen, H. & Stenman, O. (1996). Population structure and conservation of the Saimaa Ringed Seal (Phoca hispida saimensis Nordq.) Abstracts, Eleventh Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals, Orlando , FL , USA , Dec. 14-18, 1996.
  • Smith, T. G. (1973). Population dynamics of the Ringed Seal in the Canadian Eastern Arctic. Bull. Fish. Res. Bd Can. 181: 155.
  • Soulé, M. E., (Ed.) (1987). Viable populations for conservation. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press.
  • Ukkonen, P. (1993). The post-glacial history of the Finnish mammalian fauna. Ann. zool. fenn. 30: 249264.