Appendix S1. Lists of species as they appear on permits in each province in South Africa. This highlights the areas where record keeping is inadequate. Note that detail depends on information provided by the province and changes have not been made to mis-classified species. Sheet names are abbreviated as follows: EC=Eastern Cape, FS=Free State, G=Gauteng, KZN=Kwa-Zulu Natal, L=Limpopo Province, MP=Mpumalanga, NC=Northern Cape, NW=North West Province, WC=Western Cape.

Appendix S2. A list of all species recorded in South Africa as imported, in zoos, or appearing for sale in pet stores or online (sheet 1), their relative abundance in South Africa and traits for each species (sheet 2), and the references used to obtain trait data (sheet 3).

Appendix S3. A partial dependence plot of the relationship between Size and abundance (on the linear predictor scale) – i.e. the figure shows the response to Size having taken account of the effects of other variables. When n=77 (i.e. the model where all variables are included), the basis dimension for the smoothing parameter for Size, k, that minimised the AIC of the best model was 4 (a). For n=234, k was 6 (b). But in both cases, the largest species are favoured in the trade, and the smallest species are relatively less abundant.

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