Table S1. Conversion between IUCN Habitat Classification Scheme and Land Cover Map of Africa habitat classifications.

Table S2. 2008 IUCN Red List category, Extent of Occurrence (EOO), Extent of Suitable Habitat (ESH), percentage of EOO containing suitable habitat, percentages of ESH within Important Bird Areas (IBAs) and Protected Areas (PAs), and number of IBAs designated for each species for the 157 species of threatened terrestrial African birds covered in this study. VU=Vulnerable, EN=Endangered, CR=Critically Endangered. Conservation efforts for species with EOOs>100 000 km2 (marked *) are likely to require a greater emphasis on broad-scale, rather than site-based, conservation actions.

Table S3. Numbers of category A1 and other Important Bird Areas (IBAs) in mainland Africa and Madagascar included and excluded (due to lack of digitized boundaries) from the study. Category A1 IBAs regularly hold significant numbers of a globally threatened species, or other species of global conservation concern.

Figure S1. Histogram of percentage of Extent of Suitable Habitat (ESH) within Protected Areas (PAs) for 144 globally threatened African bird species.

Figure S2. Density of species based on Extent of Suitable Habitat (ESH) for globally threatened African bird species with <25% of their ESH within Important Bird Areas, mapped as maximum number of species per 50 km2 to increase clarity of figure, and excluding species with Extent of Occurrence >100 000 km2.

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