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Appendix S1. Relationship between heart rate (fH;BPM) and energy expenditure (kJ/day) of three Black-capped Vireos. The regression equation is VO2 = 0.446 fH + 11.3, r2 = 0.837. Heart rate calibrations were performed between 0700 h and 2230 h (local time).

Appendix S2. a) Mean energy expenditure (±SE) and b) heart rate (±SE) during the control no-disturbance trial (day 1), and in response to a 4-h chase disturbance experiment (700 h-1100 h local time, day 2). a) Time is shown as time from the start of the disturbance (hour 0) to the end (hour 4). b) The first asterisk indicates the start of the disturbance and the following asterisks indicate the change in observer for the chase experiment.

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