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Post-emergence handling of green turtle hatchlings: improving hatchery management worldwide


  • J. P. van de Merwe,

    Corresponding authorCurrent affiliation:
    1. Australian Rivers Institute, Griffith University, Gold Coast, Qld, Australia
    • School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Queensland, St Lucia, Qld, Australia
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  • K. Ibrahim,

    1. Turtle and Marine Ecosystems Centre, Department of Fisheries Malaysia, Rantau Abang, Terengganu, Malaysia
    Current affiliation:
    1. Marine Park Department of Malaysia, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment, Federal Government Administration Centre, Putrajaya, Malaysia
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  • J. M. Whittier

    1. School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Queensland, St Lucia, Qld, Australia
    Current affiliation:
    1. School of Medicine, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tas., Australia
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  • Editor: Trent Garner

    Associate Editor: Mariana Morando


Jason Paul van de Merwe, Australian Rivers Institute, Griffith University, Gold Coast, Qld 4222, Australia.



Hatcheries are commonly used to protect sea turtle eggs from poaching and predation; however, there is currently limited scientific evidence to support good hatchery management practices, particularly post-hatching. This study investigated the effects of retaining hatchlings in hatcheries after emergence and delaying nest excavations on the quality of green turtle Chelonia mydas hatchlings. In addition, the effect of artificial lighting on the sea-finding ability of green turtles was investigated to highlight the importance of hatchling release locations on hatchery beaches. Hatchling running speed, an indicator of vigour and predation exposure, progressively decreased when hatchlings were retained in the hatchery for 1, 3 and 6 hours following emergence. Similarly, body condition (mass : straight carapace length), an indicator of dehydration and/or energy consumption, decreased after being retained for 3 and 6 hours. It was estimated that hatchlings retained for 6 hours after emergence would become significantly dehydrated and double their exposure to beach slope predation. Residual hatchlings that were immediately excavated from emerged nests had similar running speed and body condition to naturally emerged siblings. However, residual hatchlings removed from nests 5 days later had significantly reduced running speed and body condition, resulting in estimates of double the exposure to predation in near-shore areas. The mean angle of hatchling dispersal varied at different sites along the Ma’Daerah beach in relation to proximity to artificial lighting. Important recommendations for post-hatching management of sea turtle hatcheries worldwide can be made from the results of this study. To maximize release of hatchlings in the best condition as is possible, hatchlings should be released immediately after emergence, including excavation of any residual hatchlings. In addition, the dispersal angles of hatchlings should be tested at each hatchery beach to determine suitable release sites for efficient dispersal.

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