• type 2 diabetes mellitus;
  • cardiovascular disease;
  • vascular calcified plaque;
  • carotid wall thickness;
  • genome scan;
  • principal components analysis


A genome-wide linkage scan of 357 European American (EA) and 72 African American (AA) pedigrees multiplex for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) was performed with multipoint nonparametric QTL linkage analysis. Four subclinical measures of cardiovascular disease (CVD): coronary artery (CCP), carotid artery (CarCP), and abdominal aortic calcified plaque (AACP) and carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) were mapped. Analyses were adjusted for age, gender, body mass index, and (if appropriate) ethnicity and diabetes status.

Evidence for linkage was observed in EA T2DM subjects to CarCP near 16p13 (LOD=4.39 at 8.4 cM; P = 0.00001). When all EA subjects were included, the LOD score was 2.52, suggesting an amplification of the linkage by diabetes. Linkage analysis of a principal components measure of vascular calcium (LOD = 3.85 at 9.3 cM on 16p in EA T2DM subjects) and bivariate analysis of CarCP X IMT (LOD = 3.77 at 9.3 cM on 16p in EA T2DM subjects) were consistent with this linkage. In addition, evidence for linkage was observed with CCP near D15S1515 (LOD = 2.34) in EAs. Additional loci on chromosomes 1, 2, 7, 10, 13, and 21 had LODs > 2.0. The identification of trait-determining polymorphisms underlying these linkages will help delineate risk factors for CVD in T2DM and the general population.