Population Structure in Contemporary Sweden—A Y-Chromosomal and Mitochondrial DNA Analysis

Authors

  • T. Lappalainen,

    1. Finnish Genome Center, Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland, University of Helsinki, Tukholmankatu 8, P.O. Box 20, 00014 Helsinki, Finland
    Search for more papers by this author
  • U. Hannelius,

    1. Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, 14157 Huddinge, Sweden
    Search for more papers by this author
  • E. Salmela,

    1. Finnish Genome Center, Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland, University of Helsinki, Tukholmankatu 8, P.O. Box 20, 00014 Helsinki, Finland
    2. Department of Medical Genetics, University of Helsinki, Haartmaninkatu 8, P.O. Box 63, 00014 Helsinki, Finland
    Search for more papers by this author
  • U. Von Döbeln,

    1. Centre for Inherited Metabolic Diseases, Karolinska University Hospital, 14186 Stockholm, Sweden
    Search for more papers by this author
  • C. M. Lindgren,

    1. Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, Oxford University, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford, OX3 7BN, UK
    Search for more papers by this author
  • K. Huoponen,

    1. Department of Medical Genetics, University of Turku, Kiinamyllynkatu 10, 20520 Turku, Finland
    Search for more papers by this author
  • M.-L. Savontaus,

    1. Department of Medical Genetics, University of Turku, Kiinamyllynkatu 10, 20520 Turku, Finland
    Search for more papers by this author
  • J. Kere,

    1. Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, 14157 Huddinge, Sweden
    2. Department of Medical Genetics, University of Helsinki, Haartmaninkatu 8, P.O. Box 63, 00014 Helsinki, Finland
    3. Clinical Research Centre, Karolinska University Hospital, 14186 Stockholm, Sweden
    Search for more papers by this author
  • P. Lahermo

    Corresponding author
    1. Finnish Genome Center, Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland, University of Helsinki, Tukholmankatu 8, P.O. Box 20, 00014 Helsinki, Finland
    Search for more papers by this author

*Corresponding author: Päivi Lahermo, Finnish Genome Center, Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland, University of Helsinki. Tel: +358-9-191 25476; Fax: +358-9-191 25478. E-mail: paivi.lahermo@helsinki.fi

Summary

A population sample representing the current Swedish population was analysed for maternally and paternally inherited markers with the aim of characterizing genetic variation and population structure. The sample set of 820 females and 883 males were extracted and amplified from Guthrie cards of all the children born in Sweden during one week in 2003. 14 Y-chromosomal and 34 mitochondrial DNA SNPs were genotyped. The haplogroup frequencies of the counties closest to Finland, Norway, Denmark and the Saami region in the north exhibited similarities to the neighbouring populations, resulting from the formation of the Swedish nation during the past millennium. Moreover, the recent immigration waves of the 20th century are visible in haplogroup frequencies, and have led to increased diversity and divergence of the major cities. Signs of genetic drift can be detected in several counties in northern as well as in southern Sweden. With the exception of the most drifted subpopulations, the population structure in Sweden appears mostly clinal. In conclusion, our study yielded valuable information of the structure of the Swedish population, and demonstrated the usefulness of biobanks as a source of population genetic research. Our sampling strategy, nonselective on the current population rather than stratified according to ancestry, is informative for capturing the contemporary variation in the increasingly panmictic populations of the world.

Ancillary