Phylogeography of the Y-chromosome haplogroup C in northern Eurasia

Authors

  • Boris Malyarchuk,

    Corresponding author
    1. Institute of Biological Problems of the North, Russian Academy of Sciences, Portovaya str. 18, 685000 Magadan, Russia
      Corresponding author: Dr. Boris A. Malyarchuk, Genetics Laboratory, Institute of Biological Problems of the North, Portovaya str., 18, 685000 Magadan, Russia. Fax/Phone: +7 4132 634463; E-mail: malyarchuk@ibpn.ru
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  • Miroslava Derenko,

    1. Institute of Biological Problems of the North, Russian Academy of Sciences, Portovaya str. 18, 685000 Magadan, Russia
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  • Galina Denisova,

    1. Institute of Biological Problems of the North, Russian Academy of Sciences, Portovaya str. 18, 685000 Magadan, Russia
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  • Marcin Wozniak,

    1. Forensic Medicine Institute, the Ludwik Rydygier Medical College, the Nicolaus Copernicus University in Torun, 85-094 Bydgoszcz, Poland
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  • Tomasz Grzybowski,

    1. Forensic Medicine Institute, the Ludwik Rydygier Medical College, the Nicolaus Copernicus University in Torun, 85-094 Bydgoszcz, Poland
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  • Irina Dambueva,

    1. Institute of General and Experimental Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences, 670047 Ulan-Ude, Russia
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  • Ilia Zakharov

    1. N.I. Vavilov Institute of General Genetics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Gubkin Str. 3, 119991 Moscow, Russia
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Corresponding author: Dr. Boris A. Malyarchuk, Genetics Laboratory, Institute of Biological Problems of the North, Portovaya str., 18, 685000 Magadan, Russia. Fax/Phone: +7 4132 634463; E-mail: malyarchuk@ibpn.ru

Summary

To reconstruct the phylogenetic structure of Y-chromosome haplogroup (hg) C in populations of northern Eurasia, we have analyzed the diversity of microsatellite (STR) loci in a total sample of 413 males from 18 ethnic groups of Siberia, Eastern Asia and Eastern Europe. Analysis of SNP markers revealed that all Y-chromosomes studied belong to hg C3 and its subhaplogroups C3c and C3d, although some populations (such as Mongols and Koryaks) demonstrate a relatively high input (more than 30%) of yet unidentified C3* haplotypes. Median joining network analysis of STR haplotypes demonstrates that Y-chromosome gene pools of populations studied are characterized by the presence of DNA clusters originating from a limited number of frequent founder haplotypes. These are subhaplogroup C3d characteristic for Mongolic-speaking populations, “star cluster” in C3* paragroup, and a set of DYS19 duplicated C3c Y-chromosomes. All these DNA clusters show relatively recent coalescent times (less than 3000 years), so it is probable that founder effects, including social selection resulting in high male fertility associated with a limited number of paternal lineages, may explain the observed distribution of hg C3 lineages.

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