Diachronic Investigations of Mitochondrial and Y-Chromosomal Genetic Markers in Pre-Columbian Andean Highlanders from South Peru

Authors

  • Lars Fehren-Schmitz,

    Corresponding author
    1. Historic Anthropology and Human Ecology, Johann-Friedrich-Blumenbach Department of Zoology and Anthropology, University Goettingen, Goettingen 37073, Germany
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  • Ole Warnberg,

    1. Historic Anthropology and Human Ecology, Johann-Friedrich-Blumenbach Department of Zoology and Anthropology, University Goettingen, Goettingen 37073, Germany
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  • Markus Reindel,

    1. German Archaeological Institute (DAI), Commission for Archaeology of Non-European Cultures (KAAK), Bonn 53173, Germany
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  • Verena Seidenberg,

    1. Historic Anthropology and Human Ecology, Johann-Friedrich-Blumenbach Department of Zoology and Anthropology, University Goettingen, Goettingen 37073, Germany
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  • Elsa Tomasto-Cagigao,

    1. Departmento de Humanidades, Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú, Lima 32, Perú
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  • Johny Isla-Cuadrado,

    1. Instituto Andino de Estudios Arqueológicos (INDEA), Lima 11, Perú
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  • Susanne Hummel,

    1. Historic Anthropology and Human Ecology, Johann-Friedrich-Blumenbach Department of Zoology and Anthropology, University Goettingen, Goettingen 37073, Germany
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  • Bernd Herrmann

    1. Historic Anthropology and Human Ecology, Johann-Friedrich-Blumenbach Department of Zoology and Anthropology, University Goettingen, Goettingen 37073, Germany
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  • Grant sponsorship: German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF); Grant number: 01UA0804B.

Corresponding author: Dr. Lars Fehren-Schmitz, Historic Anthropology and Human Ecology, Johann-Friedrich-Blumenbach
Department of Zoology and Anthropology, University of Goettingen, Buergerstrasse 50, 37073 Goettingen. Tel: +49 551/39-22249;
Fax: +49 551/39-3645; E-mail: lfehren@gwdg.de

Summary

This study examines the reciprocal effects of cultural evolution, and population dynamics in pre-Columbian southern Peru by the analysis of DNA from pre-Columbian populations that lived in the fringe area between the Andean highlands and the Pacific coast. The main objective is to reveal whether the transition from the Middle Horizon (MH: 650–1000 AD) to the Late Intermediate Period (LIP: 1000–1400 AD) was accompanied or influenced by population dynamic processes. Tooth samples from 90 individuals from several archaeological sites, dating to the MH and LIP, in the research area were collected to analyse mitochodrial, and Y-chromosomal genetic markers. Coding region polymorphisms were successfully analysed and replicated for 72 individuals, as were control region sequences for 65 individuals and Y-chromosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for 19 individuals, and these were compared to a large set of ancient and modern indigenous South American populations. The diachronic comparison of the upper valley samples from both time periods reveals no genetic discontinuities accompanying the cultural dynamic processes. A high genetic affinity for other ancient and modern highland populations can be observed, suggesting genetic continuity in the Andean highlands at the latest from the MH. A significant matrilineal differentiation to ancient Peruvian coastal populations can be observed suggesting a differential population history.

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